BURY

1830

BARLOW FOLD

Barlow Fold, a hamlet in the township and parish of Bury, hundred of Salford, 2 miles S. from Bury.

BURY

Bury, a market town, parish, and township in the hundreds of Salford and Blackburn, 9 miles N.N.W. from Manchester, 195 from London. Inhabitants 10,583. A rectory in the archdeaconry of Chester, value 29. 11s. 5d. Patron the earl of Derby. Market Thursday. Fairs March 5th, May 3d, second Thursday after Whit Sunday, September 18th, for horned cattle, horses, and woollen cloth. Bury is situated in a fertile valley, on the banks of the river Irwell, which runs close on its west side; the Roch flows about a mile distant on the east : these rivers unite at a small distance below the town. The history of Bury is extremely meagre; the manor was forfeited by the attainder of sir Thomas Pilkington, who espoused the cause of Richard III. at Bosworth, and was bestowed on the earl of Derby by Henry VII. According to tradition there were anciently two castles in and near Bury, one in a field called Castle Croft, the remains of which were noticed by Leland, but were totally demolished soon after the civil war; the other, Castle-stead, was in the adjoining township of Walmersley, but it is probable that these vestiges were merely intrenchments thrown up by the parliamentary army when they besieged the old castle in 1644, and they have of late years been obliterated by the plough. A lamentable accident took place, July 5th 1787, from the fall of the theatre, by which circumstance more than 300 persons were enclosed in the ruins; many were killed, others greatly bruised, and few escaped unhurt. Dr. Leigh, in that repository of ancient twaddle, the Natural History of Lancashire, 1700, has thought it worth his while to record, that, in a village near Bury, two persons having died of the small pox, the sickness was communicated to two cats which had lain upon the beds of the patients; both the animals exhibited the usual symptoms of the disease, and after the pustules had matured and subsided, they both soon died. The church of Bury is a handsome structure, rebuilt about half a century since, but somewhat disfigured by its ancient unsightly steeple; here is also a chapel of ease consecrated in 1770. Bury has six meeting houses for dissenters of variuos classes, and several schools attached. The Free Grammar School was amply endowed in 1726 by the Rev. M. Kay; it has two exhibitions. One half of the town of Bury is leasehold under the earl of Derby, the other half glebe, belonging to the rectory, whichis of course of considerable value. The town is not distinguished for its beauty, but is daily improving; it is well lighted with gas, and well supplied with water. The ancient staple of the place was the woollen manufacture, which is still continued, but the cotton manufacture originally brought from Bolton has been introduced and carried on in all its branches to a great extent. Bury has been distinguished for its inventions in machinery, particularly by the introduction of the picking peg, or flying shuttle, 1738, by Mr. John Kay, a contrivance which much facilitates the labours of the loom; and the drop box by Mr. Robert Kay son of the former, a machine which is used in the manufacture of fabrics of various colours; and also his suprising cotton and woollen card engine, which makes several cards at one time by a person simply turning a shaft : this machine stretches the wire out of the ring, cuts it in lengths, staples, and crooks it into teeth, pricks holes in the leather, and puts in the teeth, row after row, till the cards are finished. The establishment of the prosperous manufacturing and printing works of sir Robert Peel proved highly beneficial to the town and neighbourhood, their extent being such as to afford constant employment to the inhabitants. The canal, which branches from that of Bolton and Manchester, has added considerably to the prosperity of the town. The parish of Bury is greatly diversified with hills and valleys, in which many rivulets wind their course, their banksbeing occupied, in every convenient situation, with mills for carding and spinning of wool and cotton; and the air is remarkably pure and salubrious, though, from the vicinity of the hills which separate the counties of Lancaster and York, subject to much rain. Half a mile north of the town is Chamber Hall, the seat of William Hardman, esq., formerly the residence of sir Robert Peel bart., and in which the right honorable Robert Peel, secretary of state for the home department, was born. The parish of Bury is divided into eight townships and chapelries; four of them, Bury, Elton, Heap, and Walmersley, constitute the manor or lordship of Bury, held by the earl of Derby, and for which he owes suit and service to the Royal manor of Tottington :-

Inhabitants
Bury 10,583
Coupe and Lench, New Hall Hey, and Hall Carr 1,224
Elton 2,897
Heap 6,552
Musbury 728
Tottington, Higher 1,728
Tottington, Lower 7,333
Walmersley 3,290
Entire population 34,335

CHESHAM LEES

Chesham Lees, a hamlet in the township and parish of Bury, hundred of Salford, 1 mile N.N.E. from Bury.

(3) The New Lancashire Gazetteer or Topographical Dictionary 1830