Balderstone, a hamlet in the township of Castleton, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, 2 miles S.S.E. from Rochdale.
Beursall, a hamlet in the township of Castleton, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, 1½ mile S.S.E. from Rochdale.
Broad Lane, a hamlet in the township of Castleton, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, 2 miles S.S.E. from Rochdale.
Captain Fold, a hamlet in the township of Castleton, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, 4 miles W. from Bury.
Castleton, a township in the parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford. Inhabitants 7894. This township includes the southern part of the town of Rochdale. It derives its name from a castle which existed before the conquest; a mound of earth, called the keep, still points out its site. Castleton Hall, a large irregular pile, is the seat of Miss Smith. Castleton Mere is the seat of George Walmesley, esq; and in this township is Chamber House, the seat of R. Orford, esq.
Hartly, a hamlet in the township of Castleton, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, 9 miles N.N.E. from Manchester.
Lower Place, a hamlet in the township of Castleton, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, 1 mile S.S.E. from Rochdale.
Marland, a hamlet in the township of Castleton, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, 2 miles S.W. from Rochdale. In this place is a small lake called Marland Mere.
Newburn, a hamlet in the township of Castleton, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, 1½ mile E. from Rochdale.
Rochdale, a market town and parish in the hundred of Salford, 11 miles N.N.E. from Manchester, 195 from London. A vicarage in the archdeaconry of Chester, value £11. 4s. 9½d. Patron the archbishop of Canterbury. Market formerly on Tuesday, but now on Monday and Saturday. Fairs May 14th, Whit Tuesday, and November 7th, for cattle and horses. The original town of Rochdale was to the south of the river Roch, entirely within the township of Castleton, where still remains a lofty artificial mound, the site of the keep of an ancient Saxon castle. The number of the inhabitants of Rochdale does not appear in the population returns, as they are included in the townships of Castleton, Spotland, and Wardleworth, in which the town is situated. In the year 1795 Dr. Aikin estimated the population of the town at 10,000, but it is reasonable to conclude that it has kept pace with the general increase of the parish, and consequently must now be estimated as at least one third more. Rochdale formed anciently a part of the great fee or honour of Clitheroe. The manor has been held by various great families, and for the last three centuries by the Byrons. It was sold by lord Byron, the celebrated poet, in 1823, to James Dearden, esq. The title to the peerage of this noble family is designated as baron Byron of Rochdale. A large portion of the town being modern is well built, and has a handsome appearance. The church, dedicated to St. Chad, is an ancient building, probably of the twelfth century; some of the original columns of the north side yet remain; the choir is of the age of Edward III., and the square tower of the date of the Reformation. It stands upon an eminence, to which from the lower part of the town is an ascent of 118 steps, and the tower commands a most extensive prospect. The value of the vicarage is stated to exceed £2000 per annum, and is said to be the richest in the kingdom. There are three subordinate modern churches, St. James's, St. Stephen's, and St. Mary's. Here are eight chapels for the various classes of Dissenters, to most of which are attached Sunday schools. There is also a free school for thirty boys, endowed by Mrs. Hardman, besides the grammar school founded by archbishop Parker in the reign of Elizabeth. The endowment is small, and the school partakes more of a commercial than classical character. Rochdale is a flourishing town, the staple manufacture being woollens, the principal articles of which are baizes, flannels, kerseys, coatings, and broad cloth. Some branches of the cotton trade and the manufacture of hats have been more recently introduced. In Rochdale are two assembly rooms and a small theatre, and it is well supplied with water and gas. The parish of Rochdale is very extensive, being nine miles from east to west, and eleven from north to south, and is highly populous except on the moors. The enclosed land is mostly clay and a black soil extremely fertile. The farms are small, and chiefly occupied by manufacturers. Formerly oats were the principal produce, and oat cake the chief food of the labouring classes. In the districts where this diet prevailed, a regiment of soldiers raised in Lancashire during the American war took the name of the Haver-cake lads, assuming as their badge the oat cake, which was placed, as an object of attraction, on the point of the recruiting serjeant's sword. Coal, stone, and slate, abound in various parts; and the Rochdale Canal, affording a communication from Manchester to Halifax, contributes greatly to the prosperity of the neighbourhood. The parish contains nine townships in Lancashire, besides the chapelry of Saddleworth in Yorkshire. This latter district being considered a part of the parish of Rochdale arose from the circumstance of William de Stapleton, lord of the manor of Saddleworth, having applied to Hugh, earl of Chester, his superior lord, nearly at the end of the twelfth century, for leave to erect a chapel for the use of his tenants, which request was granted on the condition of annexing the chapel to the abbey of Whalley; on the dissolution of the monasteries it was annexed to the vicarage of Rochdale, and thus the anomaly is accounted for. An ancient division of the parish, called Honorsfield or Hundersfield, contained the townships and hamlets of Blatchinworth, Calderbrook, Littleborough, Todmorden, Walsden, Wardleworth, Wardle and Wuerdale. The modern townships are as follows :-
|Todmorden with Walsden||4985|
|Wuerdale and Wardle||5629|
|Inhabitants in Lancashire||47,109|
|Saddleworth in Yorkshire||13,902|
Rochdale Canal. This great work was first authorised by act of parliament in 1794. It commences at Manchester and proceeds from that town in a north-eastern course to Failsworth, thence through a coal country to Fox Denton, and near Chadderton, Middleton, and Hopwood. At half a mile east from Rochdale it sends off a small branch to that town. Having passed Littleborough, it gains its highest level at Dean Head, about five miles from Rochdale, near which are the White Holme and Blackstone Edge reservoirs. Continuing in a northern course, the canal proceeds to Todmorden, where it leaves the county, and taking an eastern direction joins the Calder navigation at Salterhebble near Halifax. The whole length of the Rochdale Canal is thirty-one miles and a half, its fall from Dean Head on the Halifax side 275 feet, and on the Manchester side 438 feet. Its locks of course are numerous. The reservoirs in the hilly country were formed to supply the waste of locks and leakage, the proprietors not being permitted the use of the water from the rivers Calder, Irk, and Roch.
(3) The New Lancashire Gazetteer or Topographical Dictionary 1830