1819       

4th January Monday
The stone structure to replace the wooden erection of Blackfriars Bridge was begun by Mr. Thomas Fleming, January 4th.(7)

18th February Thursday
A general meeting of the Radicals was held in St. Peter’s Field January 18th. There was another meeting on June 21.(7)

23rd January Saturday
Political bitterness led to a riot in the Theatre Royal between Henry Hunt and his friends and the Earl of Uxbridge and some officers of the 7th Light Dragoons, January 23.(7)

28th January Thursday
The Manchester Vagrant Office established January 28.(7)

18th February Thursday
John Grimshaw died, Feb. 18. He was organist of St. John’s Church and a musical composer. (City News Notes and Queries, 1238.)(7)

18th February Thursday
A general meeting of the Radicals was held in St. Peter’s Field January 18th. There was another meeting on June 21.(7)

1st March Monday
The Lock Hospital was opened in Bond Street March 1. It was afterwards removed to Deansgate.(7)

3rd March Wednesday
Mr. Robertson’s factory, in Newton Lane (now Oldham Road), was burned down March 3.(7)

8th March Monday
Thomas Gresswell, schoolmaster to the Chetham Hospital, died March 8.(7)

17th March Wednesday
Mr. Samuel Jones died 17th March. His father, John Jones, tea dealer and banker, married a daughter of the Rev. J. Mottershead. Samuel Jones was educated at the Warrington Academy, and soon after the death of his father gave up the tea business, which was at 104, Market Street, and removed the bank to 12, King Street. His sister Sarah married Lewis Loyd, the father of Lord Overstone. Samuel Jones bequeathed £5,000 to Manchester College, York, for the augmentation of the stipends of Dissenting ministers. (Baker’s Memorials, p. 95.)(7)

8th April Thursday
59 George III. cap. 22. Act for providing that the several highways within the parish of Manchester shall be repaired by the inhabitants of the respective townships within which the same are situate. April 8th.(7)

12th April Monday
The inhabitants of Oldham Street presented a petition on 12th April to the magistrates, in which they complain of “profane and debauched ballad singing by men and women.” The nuisance was therefore abated.(7)

6th May Thursday
The Recorder, No. 1, May 6, was printed by John Leigh, in the Market Place, and edited by Joseph Macardy.(7)

May
To the consternation of the orthodox and loyal committee of the Church of England Sunday Schools, many of the boys were sent to the Whit-Monday procession in drab coloured hats, then the symbol of Radicalism. These badges of Liberalism were therefore prohibited. (Bardsley’s Memorlals, p. 135.)(7)

5th June Saturday
Wardle’s Manchester Observer was published weekly. No. 9 is dated Saturday, June 5.(7)

14th June Monday
59 George III. cap. 56. Act for more effectually maintaining and amending the road from Crossford Bridge to the township of Manchester. June 14th.(7)

21st June Monday
59 Geo. III. cap. 105. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Leeds to Liverpool to make a navagable cut, and also a collateral branch or railway from their said canal at Hennis Bridge, near Wigan, to join the Duke of Bridgewater’s Canal at Leigh, Lancashire, and to amend the several Acts relating to the said Leeds and Liverpool Canal, and an Act for making the Rochdale Canal, so far as relates to certain powers therein given to the late Duke of Bridgewater. June 21st.(7)

21st June Monday
A meeting of the Radicals was held June 21st, on St. Peter’s Fields, when delegates were appointed for a general reform union. To check this reforming tendency, a meeting of the inhabitants was called by the boroughreeve, Mr. E. Clayton, July 9, and resolutions were adopted declaratory of a determination to co-operate in the preservation of the public peace. The Watch and Ward was re-established, and a meeting of the Reformers called for the same date was prohibited. The Radicals were advised that the legality of appointing a “legislatorial attorney” was doubtful, and the intention of doing so was abandoned, but Mr. Henry Hunt made a public entry into the town.(7)

25th July Sunday
The Independent Chapel, Chapel Street, Salford, was opened July 25.(7)

16th August Monday
The 16th of August is memorable in the annals of Manchester for the fatal Peterloo. Soon after nine o’clock the open space of St. Peter’s Fields began to fill, and processions of the Reformers from all parts of the town and the surrounding districts marched in with banners and flags. A hustings had been erected on a site near where the south east corner of the Free Trade Hall now stands. There were about sixty thousand present, including many women and children. At the last moment the magistrates decided to arrest Mr. Henry Hunt and those acting with him in the conduct of the meeting. Many special constables had been sworn, and near the field were stationed six troops of the 15th Hussars, a troop of horse artillery with two guns, the greater part of the 31st Infantry, some companies of the 88th regiment, the Cheshire Yeomanry, over 300 strong, and about forty of the Manchester Yeomanry. As Hunt began to speak, the Manchester Yeomanry, hot-headed young men who were more or less intoxicated, drew their swords, and dashed into the crowd which they attacked recklessly. They were soon completely hemmed round by the great mass of human beings against whom they had thrown themselves. The hussars now dashed forward to their rescue, and with such force that fugitives in their efforts to escape were literally piled up to a considerable height above the level of the field. The yeomanry thus extricated again rode into the crowd, cutting and slashing wherever there was an opportunity. No reliable evidence was ever brought forward that the Riot Act was publicly read before the dispersal of the crowd by the yeomanry and military. Eleven persons were killed and several hundreds wounded. Many of these were women. The object of the meeting, dispersed in this bloody fashion, was to petition for Parliamentary reform. When the reports of the outrage appeared in the London papers the feeling of indignation throughout the country was intense. The Manchester magistrates met on the 19th, and published resolutions purporting to have been adopted at a public meeting; but a protest against their proceedings received 4,800 signatures in a few days. Nothwithstanding this, Lord Sidmouth, on the 27th, conveyed to the magistrates the thanks of the Prince Regent for their action in the “preservation of the public peace !“ On the same day Hunt and others were brought up at the New Bailey Court House, and committed for trial at Lancaster Assizes on a charge of conspiracy. Elizabeth Gaunt, who had been in the carriage with Hunt, and had been wounded and trampled on the field, was discharged. Meetings were held in London, Glasgow, York, and many other towns, where the action of the magistrates was denounced. English literature owes the Masque of Anarchy to Shelley’s indignation at the butchery of the people at Peterloo. When Parliament met in November, Earl Grey moved an amendment to the Address in condemnation of the Manchester massacre, but the votes were 34 for and 159 against. In the Commons 150 voted for an inquiry and 381 against an inquiry. Nevertheless, the effect of Peterloo was very important, for it united the Reformers of all classes, and was the beginning of the movement which carried into law the Reform Bill of 1832.(7)

28th August Saturday
The Patriot, No.1, price 2d., was printed by Joseph Aston, August 28.(7)

2nd October Saturday
Mr. Thomas James Hatfield died 2nd October, aged 31, and was buried at Cross Street Chapel. He had collected a valuable library, which was sold by auction. Sir Thomas Baker describes his book-plates (Memorials, p. 112).(7)

1st November Monday
The building of the Infantry Barracks, Regent Road, began November 1.(7)

30th November Tuesday
William Cobbett was prevented by the authorities from passing through Manchester, on his way from Liverpool to London, on his return from America, November 30. The prohibition was due to Cobbett’s intention to carry through town the bones of Thomas Paine, which he had brought over with him from the United States. (Wheeler’s Manchester, p. 119.)(7)

15th December Wednesday
The Rev. John Markland, M.A., of Bicester, county of Oxford, eldest son of Robert Markland, of Mabfield, died December 15.(7)

1819
The Congregational Chapel, Mosley Street, enlarged. This congregation afterwards migrated and formed the Cavendish Street Chapel.(7)

1819
The Hulme Philosophical Institution founded at Christ Church Schools, time. The promoters were James Gaskell, Rowland Detrosier, and others. It was afterwards united to the Sunday school there, and known as Christ Church Institute.(7)

1819
The Collegiate Churchyard was enclosed with iron railings, and a faculty obtained from the Bishop of Chester prohibiting interments therein for a period of 31 years.(7)

1819
Rev. Peploe Ward, D.D., died. He was the son of Archdeacon Ward, of St. Ann’s, and was educated at the Grammar School and at Cambridge, and was rector of Beeton, Cottenham.(7)

1819
Mr. James Banks Robinson, R.N., died at his house, Cheetwood, in his 71st year. He was fifty years in the service, and fought in twelve general engagements, amongst which were those of the Nile and Trafalgar, when he acted as pilot to the fleet. Few men ever passed a more chequered life, or witnessed more hairbreadth escapes. He commenced his career with Bruce, the traveller, and was also the first of the party of midshipmen who ascended to the top of Pompey’s Pillar, and partook of a bowl of punch.(7)

1819
The Manchester Racecourse was improved.(7)