1844       

1st January Monday
The Manchester and Leeds Railway extension line to Hunt’s Bank opened January 1.(7)

6th January Saturday
Mr. John Edward Taylor, proprietor and principal editor of the Guardian newspaper, died January 6, aged 52. Mr. Taylor was born at Ilminster, in the county of Somerset, on the 11th of September, 1791. His father, Mr. John Taylor, undertook the education of his son, who was originally intended for the medical profession, but was placed with an estimable gentleman in the manufacturing business, and before he was of age his indentures were given up to him, and he was admitted into the concern as a partner. Mr. Taylor first appeared in public business in 1810, as secretary to the Lancasterian School in this town, and in 1812 he took a very active part in the discussions which so much agitated the public mind at that period. Cowdroy’s Manchester Gazette was at that time the only organ of the Liberal party, and after a number of occasional contributions the columns of that paper were unreservedly thrown open to Mr. Taylor. From 1816 to 1819 every intelligent account of the political transactions of the district was regarded with the liveliest interest, and such accounts were abundantly furnished by the labours of Mr. Taylor. The elaborate pamphlet written by him on the political proceedings of 1819, and the melancholy affair of the 16th of August, furnished a striking proof of the calm and rational manner in which he could treat the most exciting topics of discussion. In 1819 Mr. Taylor was subjected to a prosecution for libel, which arose through an imputation cast upon him at a public meeting, which was perfectly groundless; and after some efforts to procure an explanation, he resented the imputation in a letter addressed and sent to the party by whom it had been uttered, and this letter formed the ground of the action for libel, which was tried at Lancaster, March 29, 1819. On this occasion Mr. Taylor defended himself personally, with great ability, and with complete success; and the trial was remarkable as being the only one upon record in which the defendant indicted for libel was permitted to give evidence in justification of his statements. In 1820, a number of gentlemen of Liberal politics determined to establish a newspaper advocating their views of political and local events. They urgently requested Mr. Taylor to become the editor, to which he consented; and in order to carry out their object, a subscription was raised in 1821 of £1,000, chiefly in loans of £100 each. This sum being entrusted to Mr. Taylor’s management, formed the original capital invested in the establishment of the Guardian, the first number of which appeared May 5, 1821. Mr. Taylor was at all times an active and untiring advocate of public improvements in the town, many of which owe their origin to him.(7)

15th January Monday
Mr. George Wallis appointed master of the School of Design, upon the resignation of Mr. John Zephaniah Bell, January 15.(7)

16th January Tuesday
Colonel John Drinkwater-Bethune, C.B., formerly captain In the 72nd Regiment of Royal Manchester Volunteers, and the author of the History of the Siege of Gibraltar, died January 16, at Thorncroft, Surrey, aged 81. Colonel Drinkwater was the son of Dr. Drinkwater, of Salford, and was born near Latchford, June 9, 1762. He received his education at the Manchester Grammar School, and at the age of fifteen entered the army, receiving a commission in the 72nd Regiment, raised in this town. Though so young an officer, he adopted the plan of keeping a faithful account of every particular connected with his military service, and especially with the memorable attack on Gibraltar. From these memoranda he was enabled, on his return home, to publish that graphic History of the Siege of Gibraltar which has become a military classic. He wrote also an account of the battle of Cape St. Vincent, at which he was present. This contains some anecdotes of Nelson. Drinkwater was nearly, if not the last, of the surviving heroes of Gibraltar.(7)

27th January Saturday
The Rev. William Gadsby died January 27, at the age of 71. He was for 38 years minister of the Baptist Chapel, Rochdale Road. This worthy preacher occupied a very warm place in the affections of the people, and in spite of some eccentricities he was generally admired for his abilities and respected for the sincerity of his efforts to benefit those around him.(7)

17th February Saturday
Mr. Jesse Lee, of Hulme, died, February 17. He was a native of Rochdale, where he was born Jan. 4, 1791, but came to this town in early life. He was particularly conversant with the history of all the old Lancashire families. He also particularly excelled in copying old prints with the pen, in such a manner as to render it difficult to distinguish the original. Mr. Lee had prepared for publication a new edition of Tim Bobbin’s works, containing a great quantity of original information, as well as the addition of nearly 700 words used in this part of Lancashire. His MS. collections are now in the Manchester Free Library. He published an annotated edition of Seacombe’s House of Stanley.(7)

14th March Thursday
Mr. Robert Philips, father of Mr. Mark Philips, M.P. for Manchester, died March 14. at the Park, aged 84. The father of Mr. Philips was the second of three brothers, John, Nathaniel, and Thomas, who were all partners in business. Thomas was born in 1728, and died in 1811, at the age of 83. Sir George Philips, Bart., was his son. Nathaniel, the father of the deceased, was born in 1726; and died in 1808; and the subject of this notice was born April, 1760. Mr. Philips married Miss Needham, a sister of Mr. Matthew Needham, of Lenton, near Nottingham, but had long been a widower at the time of his death. Mr. Philips was one of the original founders of the Manchester Deaf and Dumb School and Asylum, to which he was a munificent contributor—indeed, there are few local charitable institutions which had not received the advantage of his counsel and contributions. He was the oldest member of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, having entered in 1783. He was also a liberal benefactor to the Manchester New College, having given upwards of £500 to that institution, of which he was president during the years 1834 – 1837. His remains were interred at Stand Presbyterian Chapel, March 20.(7)

14th March Thursday
The premises of the Christian Knowledge Society, in Ridgefield, were destroyed by fire, together with the stock of Bibles, &c.. March 14. (7)

24th March Sunday
Mr. William Vaughan died at Manchester, March 24. He was born in 1790, and became first master of the Manchester Deaf and Dumb School. He was author of a Vocabulary for the Deaf and Dumb, March, 1828. (North of England Magazine, vol 1, p. 98, 1842.)(7)

27th March Wednesday
A man was killed at the works of the Albert Bridge, by the breaking of a beam which supported the crane used in lowering the stones into their places, March 27.(7)

27th March Wednesday
Mr. John Burn, well known as the author of Burn’s Commercial Glance, and formerly of Manchester, died March 27, aged 68.(7)

8th April Monday
A grand musical festival was held at the Free Trade Hall, April 8 and 9.(7)

16th April Tuesday
The borough of Salford received a charter of incorporation April 16. Mr. William Locket was appointed first mayor. The grant of heraldic arms and supporters is dated November 5 and 6.(7)

2nd May Thursday
The first stone was laid of the Presbyterian (Covenanting) Church, in Ormond Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, May 2. This was the first place of worship erected in England by this particular branch of the Scotch Presbyterians. It was designed by Mr. A. Nicholson, and is capable of seating 400 persons.(7)

4th May Saturday
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway extension line opened to Victoria Station, Hunt’s Bank, May 4.(7)

5th May Sunday
The Hon. Richard Bootle-Wilbraham, M.P., eldest son of Lord Skelmersdale, and one of the representatives in Parliament of South Lancashire, died May 5. Mr. Wilbraham was born October 27, 1801. In 1832 he married Miss Jessie Brooke, third daughter of Sir Richard Brooke, Bart., by whom he had issue several children. His eldest son succeeded as Lord Skelmersdale in 1853 and was in 1880 created Earl of Lathom. He was elected for South Lancashire in 1835.(7)

7th May Tuesday
The Theatre Royal, Fountain Street, was destroyed by fire, May 7.(7)

8th May Wednesday
Mr. Isaac Crewdson died May 8, aged 64. He was born at Kendal in 1780, but in early youth came to Manchester, and for many years resided at Ardwick. In 1836 he retired from business, and devoted his time and talents to the benefit of his fellowmen. In aid of this object he published an abridgment of Baxter’s Saints’ Rest, of which 30,000 copies were circulated. In 1835 he appeared as an author. His Beacon to the Society of Friends gave rise to controversy, the result of which was that Mr. Crewdson and many of his friends withdrew themselves from that society. He joined the communion of the Anglican Church.(7)

10th May Friday Besses-o'th'-Barn
Affeering Day at Besses-o'th'-Barn Inn, on Friday, the 10th day of May, when a great many were fined 2s. 6d. each for not appearing in person or sending twopence to be paid instead of appearing on Friday, the 26th day of April. N.B.- The above fine to be paid on future court days if they neglect either to go or send.- From "James Richardson's Diary."
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13th May Monday
St. Thomas’s Church, Red Bank, was consecrated, May 13.(7)

27th May Monday
An election for South Lancashire, May 27 and 28, caused by the death of Mr. Wilbraham. The candidates were Mr. William Brown, of Liverpool, in the Free Trade interest, and Mr. William Entwisle, of Rusholme, a Conservative, and the following were the numbers at the close of the poll: Mr. William Entwisle, 7,562; Mr. Brown, 6,984.(7)

1st June Saturday
Mr. William Mullis, for upwards of thirty years sub-librarian at the Chetham Hospital, died June 1, aged 67. He was the author of A Brief Account of Chetham’s Foundation.(7)

6th June Thursday
7 Victoria, cap. 33. Act for opening certain streets and otherwise improving the town of Salford, and for amending an Act passed in the 11th year of His Majesty King George IV., for better cleansing and improving the said town of Salford. June 6.(7)

4th July Thursday
7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 30. Act to alter and amend an Act of the fifty-third year of King George the III., for the appointment of a stipendiary magistrate to act within the township of Manchester and Salford. July 4.(7)

4th July Thursday
7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 31. Act for the warehousing of foreign goods for home consumption at the borough of Manchester. July 4. The first cargo of goods for bonding in Manchester arrived October 19 and consisted of wines and spirits the property of Mr Duncan Gibb the gentleman who was the principal instigator of the Bill. The goods were conveyed by a fiat called the Express.(7)

4th July Thursday
7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 40. Act for the good government and police regulation of the borough of Manchester. July 4.(7)

4th July Thursday
7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 41. Act for the improvement of the town of Manchester. July 4.(7)

4th July Thursday
7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 43. Act to enable the President, Treasurers, Deputy-Treasurers, Benefactors and Subscribers, of and to the Manchester Royal Infirmary, Dispensary, and Lunatic Hospital, or Asylum to enlarge the said Infirmary, and to purchase and hold land for the erection of a new Lunatic Hospital or Asylum. July 4.(7)

4th July Thursday
8 Victoria. Act for making a railway from the Manchester and Bolton Railway, in the Parish of Eccles, to the Parish of Whalley, to be called the Manchester, Bury, and Rossendale Railway. July 4.(7)

9th July Tuesday
The tenth annual conference of the British Temperance Association was held July 9, 10, and 11. Mr. John Bright resigned the presidency, to which he had been elected in 1842. (7)

15th July Monday
A dinner given to Mr. John Knowles, jun., at the Queen’s Hotel, July 15, on which occasion his friends presented him with a handsome silver cup and two silver salvers, in acknowledgment of his energetic and successful efforts to revive the national drama in Manchester. Mr. Knowles was the lessee of the late Theatre Royal before it was burnt.(7)

16th July Tuesday
The King of Saxony visited Manchester, and inspected various establishments and public buildings, July 16.(7)

27th July Saturday
Mr. John Dalton, D.C.L. Oxon, F.R.S.L. and E., president of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, died July 27, in his 78th year. Dr. Dalton was born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, Cumberland, September 5, 1766, of respectable parents, members of the Society of Friends. He gave early indications of mathematical ability. In 1781 he became a mathematical teacher in Kendal, from whence he contributed largely on mathematical, philosophical, and general subjects to the two annual works called the Gentlemen’s Diary, Ladies’ Diary. In 1788 he commenced his meteorological observations, which he continued throughout his life. In 1793 he published Meteorological Observations and Essays. In the same year he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the New College, Mosley Street, Manchester, and continued to hold this office until the college was finally removed to York. In 1808 he published A New System of Chemical Philosophy, and a second part in 1810. He also frequently contributed to Nicholson’s Journal, the Annals of Philosophy, and the Philosophical Magazine, as well as to the memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, of which, for fifty years, he was an active member, having been elected on the 25th ofApril, 1794. Dr. Dalton had been president of this society since 1817. In 1826 he received the gold medal of the Royal Society for his scientific discoveries; and in 1833 the sum of £2,000 was raised by his friends and townsmen for the erection of a statute to perpetuate his memory. The task was entrusted to Sir Francis Chantry, who brought to the execution of his subject not only his artistic genius but a warm admiration of the man. The statue, when completed, was placed in the entrance hall of the Royal Manchester Institution. The University of Oxford conferred on the septuagenarian philosopher the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. “Though Dr. Dalton’s great discovery, the ‘Atomic Theory,” says Whewell, “was soon generally employed, and universally spoken of with admiration, it did not bring to him anything but barren praise, and he continued in his humble employment when his fame had filled Europe and his name become a household word in the laboratory. After some years he was appointed a corresponding member of the Institute of France, which may be considered as a European recognition of the importance of what he had done. In 1833, at the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which was held at Cambridge, it was announced that the King had bestowed upon him a pension of £150, which act of liberality enabled him to pass the remainder of his days in comparative ease.” Dalton was buried August 12, in a vault in Ardwick Cemetery. The body lay in state at the Town Hall, on Saturday, August 10, and the public were allowed to pass through the room during the greater part of the day, and it was supposed that nearly 40,000 persons availed themselves of this privilege. At eleven o’clock on Monday, the procession moved from the Town Hall in the following order; About 500 members of various societies, 22 carriages, 300 gentlemen, 10 carriages, 100 members of various institutions, 36 carriages, the last of which contained the Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alexander Kay,), the hearse drawn by six horses, six mourning coaches drawn by four horses each, containing the relatives and friends of the deceased, followed by the members of the Philosophical Society. The procession movedthrough the principal streets in the town, and was joined, near the cemetery, by a large body of the Society of Friends. Most of the mills and workshops were closed, as were also the whole of the shops in the principal streets of the town. The vault in which the body was laid was allowed to remain open until five o’clock in the evening, during which period many thousand persons viewed the coffin.(7)

5th August Monday
The Irwell Buildings, in Blackfriars Street, partially destroyed by fire, August 5. The damage was £20,000. During the fire two men were killed by the falling of a “cat-head.”(7)

8th August Thursday
A great public meeting was held in the Town Hall, for the purpose of taking into consideration the formation of public parks in Manchester. A subscription was set on foot, which in a few weeks amounted to the sum of £8,000. Lord Francis Egerton, Sir Benjamin Heywood, and Mr. Mark Philips each subscribed £1,000, and six other gentlemen £500 each. August 8.(7)

12th August Monday
The Venerable Henry Vincent Bayley, D.D., died, August 12. He was son of Thomas Butterworth Bayley, and was born at Hope Hall, Dec. 6, 1777, and was educated at Winwick Grammar School, Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was elected fellow of his college in October, 1802, and in 1803 ordained deacon and afterwards priest. He was presented to the Rectory of Stilton, made sub-dean of Lincoln in 1805, and in 1811 Rector of Messingham. There is some glass in Messingham Church which Dr. Bayley bought from the Manchester Cathedral, which was then being restored. In 1823 he was made Archdeacon of Stow, and received his D.D. degree from Cambridge. In 1826 be was made Rector of Westmaon In 1828 he exchanged his sub deanery for a canonry at Westminster. He was the author of A Sermon preached at an Ordination in the Cathedral Church of Chester, Sept. 25, 1803, and a Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Archdeaconry of Stow, at the Visitation in May, 1826. (Memoir of H. V. Bayley, by Le Bas.)(7)

14th August Wednesday Bury-Pilkington-Radcliffe-Manchester-Bolton
August 14th was first known as "Bury License Day" for innkeepers, &c. Previously Pilkington licenses were granted at Manchester and Radcliffe licenses at Bolton.
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16th August Friday
Albert Bridge was opened for foot passengers August 16; and opened for general traffic, September 26. A procession of the corporate bodies of Manchester and Salford took place at the inauguration. The total cost of the erection was £8,874 15s. 5d.(7)

August
Mr. James Wroe, bookseller, Great Ancoats Street, and for many years acommissioner of police, &c., for this town, died August. (Procter’s Bygone Manchester, pp 83, 84.)(7)

September
Professor Justus von Liebig, one of the most distinguished chemists in Europe visited Manchester in September.(7)

3rd October Thursday
The Athenæum soiree held in the Free Trade Hall, October 3. Upwards of 3,000 persons attended. The chief speakers were Mr. B. Disraeli, M.P., Lord John Manners, M.P., and the Hon. George Sydney Smythe, M.P.(7)

11th October Friday
The Custom House, No. 73, Mosley Street, was opened for business, October 11. Mr. Powell, of Newcastle, appointed collector, and Mr. Shelly, of Liverpool, comptroller.(7)

13th October Monday
Mr. Joseph Aston died at Chadderton Hall, October 13, aged 83. He was formerly proprietor of the Manchester Exchange Herald, and was the author of several works of a local nature, including the Picture of Manchester (which went through several editions), Metrical Records of Manchester, and many smaller contributions to the history of the town and neighbourhood.(7)

2nd November Saturday
A large chimney belonging to Messrs. Tennants, Clow and Co.’s chemical works, at Ardwick, fell down, November 2. The damage was £1,000.(7)

3rd December Tuesday
Mr. Holland Hoole died at Broughton, Dec. 3. He was the author of a Defence of the Cotton Factories ot Lancashire, 1832. He was born in Manchester March 9, 1796. (Manchester School Register, i. 8.)(7)

6th December Friday
A peal of eight bells in St. Thomas’s Church, Pendleton, opened Dec. 6. They were cast by Charles and George Mears, London, and the cost was defrayed by subscription.(7)

13th December Friday
Mr. R. J. J. Norreys, one of the magistrates for this division, and also a deputy-lieutenant of the county, died at Davyhulme Hall, December 13, aged 60.(7)

30th December Monday
Sir Henry Pottinger visited Manchester, December 30, and attended a public dinner, at which he received congratulatory addresses upon the successful termination of the Chinese war.(7)

1844
John Carter, the “Lancashire Hero,” died in Tame Street, Ancoats. He was born at Manchester Sept 13, 1789, and after working in a factory turned shoemaker and then navvy. He acquired renown as a pedestrian and pugilist, and went up to London, where Robert Gregson, the Lancashire poet-pugilist, introduced him to the fancy. He was champion of England for some time, defeated Oliver in 1816, and was defeated by Spring in 1819. (Procter’s Our Turf, &c., p. 83.)(7)

1844
St. Barnabas’s Parish Church, situated at the corner of Elizabeth Street and Rodney Street, Oldham Road, was consecrated. This church was erected at an expense of about £5,000, which was raised by subscription.(7)

1844
The Phonographic Magazine was published in Manchester. The editor was William Hepworth Dixon.(7)

1844
A large pile of buildings in George Street and York Street, consisting of ten warehouses, was completely burnt down, causing a destruction of property amounting to £140,000.(7)

1844
A portion of the warehouse of Messrs. Horton and Co., called the Shropshire Iron Warehouse, fell down, when two men were killed.(7)

1844
The amount of duty derived from the income tax in the Manchester district was £125,369.(7)

1844. Manchester
Mark Philips presented books to Mayor's Library, Manchester.
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