1851       

2nd. January Thursday
A meeting was held in the Mechanics' Institution, January 2, to consider the subject of co operation and associative labour. The Rev. T. G. Lee presided, and the Rev. F. T Maurice, Mr. Thomas Hughes, Mr. Lloyd Jones, and others addressed the gathering.(7)

3rd. January Friday
The model statuettes sent in competition for the monument to Sir Robert Peel were exhibited in the Royal Institution, January 3.(7)

10th. January Friday
The mill of Messrs. Wallace, Watchurst, and Thompson, in Chepstow Street, was destroyed by fire, January 10. The damage was about 30,000.(7)

16th. January Thursday
Canon Stowell delivered a lecture on the Papal Aggression, in the Free Trade Hall, January 16.(7)

20th. January Monday
Two floors fell in the warehouse of Messrs. Ormrod and Hardcastle, in Pall Mall, January 20, and caused serious damage.(7)

20th. January Monday
The Oddfellows' Secular School in Faulkner Street was established, Jan. 20.(7)

21st. January Tuesday
Mr. Robert Thorpe, surgeon to the Manchester Infirmary, died January 21, aged 63. He was a son of J. Thorpe, surgeon.(7)

25th. January Saturday
Mr J. S. Heron, late secretary to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, died January 25.(7)

26th. January Sunday
The Chartist Conference was held January 26, but only four localities were represented.(7)

11th. February Tuesday
Sir Henry R. Bishop gave two lectures on music, in the large room of the Town Hall, February 11 and 13.(7)

20th. February Thursday
A boiler explosion occurred on the premises of Mr C Hunt, Miller's Lane, Greengate, Salford, February 20.(7)

26th. February Wednesday
A public meeting of working men was held in the Free Library (late Hall of Science), Campfield, February 26, for the purpose of hearing an explanation of the origin and progress of the institution, &c.(7)

27th. February Thursday
A fox was caught in a lane adjoining Peel Park, Salford, February 27, having been hunted by men and dogs out of the park.(7)

28th. February Friday
Dr. R. G. Latham commenced a course of lectures at the Royal Institution on "The Ethnology of the British Colonies and Dependencies." February 28.(7)

5th. March Wednesday
About 280 of the seamen who were "on strike" at Liverpool visited this town, March 5.(7)

12th. March Wednesday
The Owens College was opened March 12. It was founded, in accordance with the will of Mr. John Owens, for the education of young persons of the male sex in such branches of learning and science as were then and may be hereafter usually taught in the English Universities. The first principal was Mr. A. J. Scott, and the first home of the college was in a house at the junction of Quay Street and Byrom Street.(7)

25th. March Tuesday
A boiler explosion occurred at the steam sawmills of Mr. Thomas Williamson, in Riga Street, March 25. Nine persons were killed. The coroner's jury returned a verdict of manslaughter against the owner and his engineer, Thomas Egerton, April 10.(7)

28th. March Friday
Mr. W. B. Carpenter, M.D., commenced a course of lectures in the Royal Institution on "Microscopic Research." March 28.(7)

31st. March Monday
According to the return of the Parliamentary census, issued March 31, the borough of Manchester contained 303,358 inhabitants. By the same return there were 53,697 houses, and the annual value of property was given at 1,204,241.(7)

31st. March Monday
At the Chartist Convention, which met 31st March, in London, Manchester was represented by Mr. Feargus O'Conor, M.P., and Mr. G. J. Mantle.(7)

12th. April Saturday
Samuel (" Sam") Rutter died, April 12, at his birthplace, Bank Top, in the 28th year of his age. He was a pugilist, of whom Bell's Life remarked: "Sam has fought twenty battles in the P.R., and never lost the battle money." He is buried in Rusholme Road Cemetery. (Procter's Our Turf, &c., p. 71.)(7)

19th. April Saturday
A great meeting in the Free Trade Hall was held on Parliamentary Reform, April 19. Mr. G. Wilson presided.(7)

19th. April Saturday
Captain James West, of the American steamship Atlantic, was entertained at dinner at the Albion Hotel, April 19.(7)

20th. April Sunday
Greenheys United Presbyterian School was opened April 20.(7)

25th. April Friday
Mr. George Dawson, M.A., of Birmingham, delivered the first of a course of lectures at the Mechanics' Institution on "The Mythology of Nations." April 25.(7)

26th. April Saturday
The Methodist New Connexion Chapel, Bury New Road, Strangeways, was opened April 26.(7)

28th. April Monday
The foundation stone of St. Paul's Church, Kersal Moor, was laid by Colonel Clowes, April 28.(7)

30th. April Wednesday
A meeting was held in the Town Hall, King Street, April 30, for the purpose of advocating a half-holiday for milliners and dressmakers. The bishop presided.(7)

1st. May Thursday
The Diocesan Church Building Society was instituted May 1.(7)

1st. May Thursday
Mr. Henry Day died May 1. He was a surgeon, and took a warm interest in the Mechanics' Institute, of which he was a director and honorary secretary.(7)

20th. May Tuesday
14 Victoria, cap. 10. Act for relief to the several townships in the parish of Manchester from the repair of highways not situate within such townships respectively. May 20.(7)

22nd. May Thursday
The Manchester Jews' School, Cheetham Hill Road, inaugurated May 22.(7)

29th. May Thursday
The foundation stone was laid of a Baptist Chapel in Great George Street, Salford, May 29.(7)

May
Mr. George Viney died, May. He was born in Brownlow Street, Drury Lane, London, in 1774, and after an adventurous life as a sailor, he settled in Manchester, where he died, an earnest member of the congregation of Rev. William Gadsby, whose Calvinistic doctrines he had adopted in their extremist form. He saw the famous sinking of the French ship "Vengeur." Previous to the building of the Salford Dispensary, Viney practised medicine, for which he had no doubt that his seafaring life and carpenter's trade had excellently prepared him. The story of his career is told in autobiographical form in The Sailor, the Sinner, the Saint: The Notable and Eventful Life of George Viney, late of Manchester (London, 1853). This was edited from his papers by John Bosworth. He is buried in Irwell Street Chapel graveyard.(7)

5th. June Thursday
14 Victoria, cap. 41. Act to continue the term of the Act of the sixth year of George IV., cap. 51 (local), so far as relates to the turnpike road between Manchester and Audenshaw, in the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne, and to make better provision for the repair of the road, and for other purposes. June 5.(7)

16th. June Monday
The foundation stone of St. Mark's Church, City Road, Hulme, was laid, June 16, by Mr. John Sharp. The consecration took place on Ascension Day, May 10, 1852. The architect was Mr. E. H. Shellard, of Manchester. The ecclesiastical district of St. Mark's was formed in 1846 under "Peel's Act." The church was the first erected after the passing of the Manchester Rectory Division Act.(7)

22nd. June Sunday
A storm of thunder and lightning visited the neighbourhood June 22.(7)

June
Charlotte Bronte paid a two-days' visit to Manchester at the end of June, staying with Mr. Gaskell. (See under date April, 1853.)(7)

17th. July Thursday
A meeting was held in the Town Hall, July 17, to memorialise the Foreign Secretary for the exertion of his influence for the liberation of Kossuth.(7)

24th. July Thursday
14 and 15 Victoria, cap. 79. Act for the further amendment of the Acts relating to the Manchester Corporation Waterworks. July 24.(7)

25th. July Friday
Cardinal Wiseman consecrated two Roman Catholic bishops in St. John's, Salford, July 25. The bishops elect were Rev. Dr. Turner, St. Augustine's, and Rev. Dr. Errington, St. John's, Salford.(7)

July
The Teetotaller, edited by Joseph Johnson. The price of this monthly was one halfpenny, but it came to an end in July, when nearly forty pounds had been lost by the venture. (City News Notes and Queries, vol. i., p. 202.)(7)

1st. August Friday
14 and 15 Victoria, cap. 119. Act for paving, lighting, cleansing, and otherwise improving the several townships and places in the borough of Manchester, and amending and consolidating the provisions of existing local Acts relating thereto. August 1.(7)

6th. August Wednesday
Thunderstorms, accompanied by heavy showers of rain, visited this neighbourhood, August 6.(7)

9th. August Saturday
Mr. Joseph Adshead's plan of Manchester. showing the municipal divisions in 24 maps, was completed. August 9.(7)

12th. August Tuesday
Mr. John Elliott Drinkwater Bethune died at Calcutta, August 12. He was eldest son of Colonel John Drinkwater Bethune, and was born 12th July, 1801, and educated at Cambridge. He was called to the bar, and in 1848 was appointed fourth ordinary member of the Supreme Council of India. This office he retained until his death. His greatest achievement in India was the establishment of a school in European hands for native females of the higher classes. He was author of The Maid of Orleans, translated from Schiller, 8vo, 1835; and Specimens of Swedish and German Poetry Translated.(7)

28th. August Thursday
A soiree of the friends of the Manchester and Salford Boroughs Educational Bill, in the Town Hall, August 28.(7)

14th. September Sunday
Fifty-two Sardinian workmen visited Manchester, September 14,15, and 16.(7)

22nd. September Monday
Presentation of a service of plate of the value of 1,000 guineas to Mr. John Potter, Mayor of Manchester. September 22.(7)

27th. September Saturday
A deputation of the National Parliamentary and Financial Reform Association held a meeting in the Free Trade Hall, September 27.(7)

3rd. October Friday
The inaugural address of Mr. A. J. Scott, as Principal of Owens College, was delivered in the large room of the Town Hall, October 3.(7)

8th. October Wednesday
The Liverpool and Manchester Agricultural Society held their show at Manchester, October 8.(7)

10th. October Friday
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visited Manchester, October 10. The Royal party stayed at Worsley New Hall, where they arrived October 9. In her diary for that date the Queen says: "From one o'clock in the morning Albert was very unwell-very sick and wretched-and I was terrified for our Manchester visit. Thank God! by eight o'clock he felt much better, and was able to get up. . . . At ten we started for Manchester. The day was fine and mild and everything to a wish. Manchester is called seven miles from Worsley, but I cannot think it is so much. We first came to Pendleton, where, as everywhere else, there are factories, and great preparations were made. School children were there in profusion. We next came to Salford, where the crowd became very dense. It joins Manchester, and is to it, in fact, as Westminster to London. . . . The mechanics and workpeople, dressed in their best, were ranged along the streets, with white rosettes in their buttonholes; both in Salford and Manchester a very intelligent but painfully unhealthy-looking population they all were, men as well as women. We went into Peel Park before leaving Salford, the mayor having got out and received us at the entrance, where was indeed a most extraordinary and, I suppose, totally unprecedented sight-82,000 school children, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Catholics (these children having a small crucifix suspended round their necks), Baptists, and Jews (whose faces told their descent), with their teachers. In the middle of the park was erected a pavilion, under which we drove, but did not get out, and where the address was read. All the children sang "God Save the Queen" extremely well together, the director being placed on a very high stand, from which he could command the whole park. We passed out at the same gate we went in by, and through the principal street of Salford, on to Manchester, at the entrance of which was a magnificent arch. The mayor, Mr. Potter, who went through the proceedings with great composure and self-possession, beautifully dressed (the mayor and Corporation had till now been too Radical to have robes), received us there, and presented me with a beautiful bouquet. We drove through the principal streets, in which there are no very fine buildings-the principal large houses being warehouses -and stopped at the Exchange, where we got out and received the address, again on a throne, to which I read an answer. The streets were immensely full, and the cheering and enthusiasm most gratifying. The order and good behaviour of the people, who were not placed behind any barriers, were the most complete we have seen in our many progresses through capitals and cities-London, Glasgow, Dublin, Edinburgh, &c.-for there never was a running crowd. Nobody moved, and therefore everybody saw well, and there was no squeezing. We returned as we came, the sun shining brightly, and were at Worsley by two." The next day Her Majesty wrote in her diary: "The mayor (now Sir John Potter, he having been knighted after presenting the Manchester address) told me last night that he thinks we saw a million of people between Manchester and Salford. There are 400,000 inhabitants in Manchester, and everyone says that in no other town could one depend so entirely upon the quiet and orderly behaviour of the people as in Manchester. You had only to tell them what ought to be done, and it was sure to be carried out." On the 11th of October the Queen passed through Manchester on her way from Worsley to the south. (Martin's Life of the Prince Consort, vol. ii., chap. 43.)(7)

13th. October Monday
A grand ball in honour of the Queen's visit was given in the Royal Exchange, October 13.(7)

16th. October Thursday
Mrs. Bexter, an American lady, delivered a lecture on "Bloomerism and Dress Reform," in the Mechanics' Institution, October 16.(7)

29th. October Wednesday
The furniture, decorations, &c., used on the occasion of the Queen's visit were sold, October 29, and realised 328. The original cost was 800.(7)

11th. November Tuesday
Louis Kossuth, ex-Governor of Hungary, visited Manchester, November 11, and was received with the acclamations of the people.(7)

20th. November Thursday
The Earl of Shaftesbury visited Manchester, November 20. An address was presented to him by the factory operatives for his own services in the passing of the Ten Hours Bill.(7)

23rd. November Sunday
Messrs. Richard Birley, John Morley, and Thomas Clegg, ex-churchwardens of Manchester, were presented with a service of plate, in recognition of services rendered in obtaining the Parish of Manchester Division Act. The presentation was made at a dinner at the Queen's Hotel, November 23.(7)

24th. November Monday
Mr. Peter Clare, F.R.A.S., died November 24. He was born in Manchester, and in 1810 became a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society, and soon became a member of Council. In 1841 he became F.R.A.S. He was an active opponent of slavery, and was a member of the Society of Friends, in whose burying-ground in Mount Street he was buried. He wrote a number of scientific papers. (Literary and Philosophical Society Translations, 2nd ser., vol. x., p. 203.)(7)

1st. December Monday
A meeting of the General Council of the National Public Schools Association was held, December 1.(7)

2nd. December Tuesday
A meeting of the friends of the Manchester and Salford Educational Bill was held in the Free Trade Hall, December 2.(7)

3rd. December Wednesday
A conference and public meeting on the subject of Parliamentary reform was held, December 3.(7)

3rd. December Wednesday
A conference of delegates was held at the Spread Eagle, December 3, to consider the proposed Reform Bill of Lord John Russell.(7)

4th. December Thursday
A deputation from the Manchester and Salford Committee of Education waited upon Lord John Russell, December 4, in reference to the Education Bill.(7)

8th. December Monday
A public meeting in the Free Trade Hall, December 8, declared in favour of household suffrage, triennial Parliaments, redistribution of seats, and the ballot.(7)

December
The total number of day scholars in Manchester and Salford was 33,663. December.(7)

1851
The population of the municipal borough of Manchester at the sixth census was 303,382, and that of the Parliamentary borough 316,213. The population of municipal Salford was 63,850, and of Parliamentary Salford 85,108.(7)