1866       

18th. January Thursday
The Memorial Hall, Albert Square, was opened January 18, in commemoration of the two thousand Nonconformist Ministers ejected from the Church of England in 1662.(7)

22nd. January Monday
The Union and Emancipation Society was dissolved and the final soiree held at the Town Hall, January 22. Mr. T. B. Potter, M.P., presided, and Professor Goldwin Smith gave an address on the Civil War in America.(7)

22nd. January Monday
A portion of the roof of the London Road Station fell, January 22, killing two men and wounding several others.(7)

30th. January Tuesday
A great meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, January 30, under the auspices of the National Reform Union. Mr. George Wilson presided.(7)

16th. February Friday
Mr. John Gray Bell died, February 16. He was born in 1823, and, after some experience as bookseller and publisher, in London, settled in Manchester. The early numbers of his second-hand book catalogue, styled The Bibliographer's Manual, contain literary notes. He also compiled a Genealogical Account of the Descendants of John of Gaunt, of whom he was one.(7)

16th. February Friday
Mr. Thomas Goadsby died February 16. He was mayor of Manchester in 1861-2.(7)

26th. February Monday
The second Art Workmen's Exhibition was opened February 26.(7)

4th. March Sunday
Mr. Robert Buchanan died at Bexhell, Sussex, March 4. He was born at Ayr, in 1813, but for some years was a prominent Socialist lecturer in Manchester, where most of his writings were published, and where he was prosecuted for the Sunday meetings at the Hall of Science. He was the father of Mr. Robert Buchanan, the poet and novelist. There is a notice of him in the Dictionary of National Biography.(7)

5th. March Monday
At a meeting of the committee of the Cobden Memorial Fund, March 5, it was decided to erect a statue to his memory.(7)

22nd. March Thursday
Mr. Travers Madge died at Norwich, March 22. He was born in that city October 12, 1823, and was the son of the Rev. Thomas Madge, minister of the Octagon Chapel. He was chiefly educated at Manchester New College, and became a zealous and earnest teacher in the Lower Mosley Street Schools. He was intended for the ministry, but from the "Christian Brethren" he acquired an aversion to a paid ministry, and he became a printer. After a stay at home and in Cornwall, he returned to Manchester in 1848, and the influence of his beautiful personal character soon made him a power for good in the schools. He edited the Sunday School Penny Magazine, and interested himself in temperance work and other agencies for the benefit of the poorer classes. For a brief time he held the post of home visitor to the (Unitarian) Mission to the Poor. In 1851 failing health obliged him to leave Manchester, but he returned in 1859, and worked in connection with a home mission, and was especially useful in the time of the cotton famine. Failing health forced him to leave the city, and after an interval in Wales he went home to Norwich to die. The pathetic story of his life is told in Travers Madge; a Memoir, by Brooke Herford, Manchester, 1867.(7)

23rd. March Friday
Mr. Edward Brotherton died March 23. He was born in 1814, and in early life was engaged in the silk trade, but forseeing that the commercial treaty with France was likely to bring to an end the prosperity of his business, he retired with a competence, which, however moderate according to modern ideas, was adequate to his simplicity of life. After a year of Continental travel, he devoted himself to the work of popular education. He saw that the existing agencies for the instruction of the children of the poor were quite unequal to the task. The letters of E. B. in the Manchester newspapers excited great attention, and led to the formation of the Education Aid Society, which gave aid to all parents too poor to pay for the education of their children. The experiment of what the voluntary system can do was tried in a way and to an extent not previously attempted, and the result was to find that such was the apathy and indifference of a large proportion of the parents, that nothing but compulsion in one form or other could bring their children within the reach of education. It was this demonstration, which Mr. H. A. Bruce, afterwards Lord Aberdare, called the "thunder-clap from Manchester," that paved the way for the Education Act of 1870. Brotherton's zeal and devotion to the cause was unbounded. He had patience, a winning grace of manner, a candour only too rare in controversy, and an unselfish devotion to the public good. In the course of his visitations amongst the poor he caught a fever, of which he died after a few days' illness, at Cornbrook, and was buried at the Wesleyan Cemetery, Cheetham Hill. There is a portrait of him in the Manchester Town Hall. Besides many contributions to periodicals, he wrote Mormonism Exposed, 1846; Spiritualism, Swedenborg, and the New Church, London, 1860. (This pamphlet has reference to the claims of the Rev. Thomas Lake Harris to a seership similar to that of Swedenborg-claim's which were vehemently denied by many members of the "New Church signified by the New Jerusalem in the Revelation," as the Swedenborgian congregations are officially styled. Brotherton prints a letter from Dr. J. J. Garth Wilkinson as to identity of the phenomena of respiration in Swedenborg and Harris. From this it will be seen that Brotherton was a disciple of Swedenborg, with a tendency to belief in spiritualistic phenomena.) The Present State of Popular Education in Manchester and Salford, 1864. This is the substance of seven letters by E. B., reprinted from the Manchester Guardian, January 1, 1864.(7)

12rd. April Thursday
Mr. Charles Dickens gave readings at the Free Trade Hall, April 12. So spontaneous was the enthusiasm of the Manchester audience, that, accustomed as Mr. Dickens was to the most genial, hearty, and vociferous greetings, this affected him deeply-indeed, he was always so susceptible to a popular tribute of this kind that it took him some moments to recover himself sufficiently either to commence or continue the reading. (Dolby's Charles Dickens as I Knew Him, page 16.)(7)

23rd. April Monday
29 Victoria, cap. 1. Act to enable the proprietors of the Manchester Royal Exchange to pull down and rebuild the same, and for other purposes with respect to the said Exchange. April 23.(7)

25th. April Wednesday
The first annual meeting of the Manchester Volunteers Aid Society was held April 25. The object was to assist in paying the expenses of the volunteers.(7)

27th. April Friday
Rev. Cecil Daniel Wray, M.A., Canon of Manchester, died April 27. He was born in 1778, and was the author of The Street Politicians, 1817, and of other tracts and sermons. (Manchester School Register, vol. iii., page 93.)(7)

1st. May Tuesday
Mr. John Bright addressed a meeting of the National Reform Union, in the Free Trade Hall, May 1.(7)

5th. May Saturday
Mr. John Critchley Prince died at Hyde, May 5. He was born at Wigan, June 21, 1808, where his father was a reedmaker. A collected edition of his poetical works appeared in 1882 under the editorial care of Dr. G. A. Douglas Lithgow, who has also written an excellent biography. Prince's intemperate habits was a chief cause of the misery of his very unhappy life. It may be doubted if his reputation as a poet will endure, but his verses have had great popularity, and from their healthy tone have had an exceedingly beneficial influence. He was resident in Manchester during a portion of his career. (Axon's Cheshire Gleanings.) Dr. Lithgow's edition of the Poems contains a very full account of Prince's life in Manchester, and of the condition of local literature. Mr. Procter's Literary Reminiscences also include a sketch of the "Bard of Hyde." Prince is buried in St. George's Church, Hyde.(7)

18th. May Friday
29 and 30 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of the city of Manchester to erect a Town Hall, Police Court, and other buildings, to acquire additional lands, and for other purposes. May 18.(7)

21st. May Monday
The annual Whitsuntide procession of the Church of England Sunday schools was held May 21. The scholars numbered 12,342.(7)

23rd. May Wednesday
By an extensive fire at the warehouses of the London and North Western Railway Company, near Ordsal Lane, damage estimated at from £200,000 to £300,000 was done. May 23.(7)

28th. May Monday
The Stamp Office, Cross Street, was broken into and about £10,000 worth of stamps stolen. May 28.(7)

15th. June Friday
The Hulme Free Library, Stretford Road, was opened June 15.(7)

24th. June Sunday
The extent of sewerage constructed in Manchester up to June 24, 1866, was. main sewers, 95 miles 476 yards; cross sewers and eyes, 147 miles 1,018 yards. Total area of streets paved and sewered, 1,009,673 yards, at a cost of £326,397.(7)

June
At the year ending June there were 337 carriages plying from the stands within the city; 518 drivers were licensed; 758 articles found in the cabs were taken by the drivers to the Town Hall; of these 397 were restored to owners. £24 was given to drivers for delivering up the articles. There were 22 stands in the township, and 74 licensed proprietors.(7)

2nd. July Monday
A large and commodious swimming bath was opened at the Mayfield Bath July 2. The dimensions were 75 feet in length by 37 in width, and varying in depth from 4 to 6 feet.(7)

5th. July Thursday
An amateur dramatic performance was given at the Athenĉum, in aid of the Critchley Prince Fund, July 5.(7)

5th. July Thursday
At the meeting of the Board of Guardians a report was read from Mr. Robert Rawlinson, C.B., in which he advised the Board in respect to the arrangements for a new fever hospital at Crumpsall, and the preparations to meet a possible visitation of cholera. Appended to one report was an interesting extract from an unpublished MS. of Robert Southey. July 5.(7)

8th. July Sunday
Thirty-second annual conference in connection with the British Temperance League, in the Friends' Meeting House, Mount Street, July 8, 10, 11. It was presided over by Mr. Joseph Thorpe.(7)

14th. July Saturday
The Manchester Artillery Volunteers were inspected at Old Trafford, by Colonel Cox, July 14.(7)

16th. July Monday
The directors of the Alexandra Hall Company were summoned at the City Police Court for issuing false statements, to induce the public to take shares in that undertaking, July 16. The statement complained of was that nearly the whole of the capital had been subscribed. The summons was withdrawn.(7)

18th. July Wednesday
A town's meeting, convened by Mr. Wright Turner, mayor of Salford, was held in the Salford Town Hall, July 18. Resolutions in favour of Parliamentary reform were adopted.(7)

28th. July Saturday
The foundation stone of the Egerton Schools, Regent Road, was laid by the Hon. Wilbraham Egerton, M.P., afterwards Lord Egerton of Tatton, July 28.(7)

2nd. August Thursday
The Maharajah of Johore visited Manchester, August 2.(7)

3rd. August Friday
A testimonial from the working men was presented to Mr. James Smith, the agent of the Manchester and Salford District Provident Society, for his exertions during the cotton famine, August 3.(7)

6th. August Monday
29 and 30 Victoria, cap. 322. Act to amend an Act of the 17th year of the reign of Her present Majesty, cap. 20, and to enable the Justices of the Division of Manchester to provide Courts and other necessary buildings, and to increase the rate authorised to be levied by the said Act of the 17th year of Her present Majesty, and to increase the remuneration of the Stipendiary Justice for the said Division, and for other purposes. August 6.(7)

10th. August Friday
A meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, August 10, under the auspices of the Reform League, for the purpose of protesting against the exclusion of the people from the Metropolitan Parks, reasserting the principles of the Reform League, and praying Her Majesty to dismiss the Tory ministry. The chairman was Mr. Edward Hooson.(7)

16th. August Thursday
A meeting of the merchants' executive committee, for shortening the hours of labour of carters, &c., was held in the Town Hall, August 16.(7)

25th. August Saturday
James Burrows was executed at the New Bailey Prison, Salford, for the murder of John Brennan, a servant of his father's, August 25.(7)

5th. September Wednesday
At a meeting of the City Council, it was decided to invite the Queen to visit Manchester on her return from Scotland, for the purpose of inaugurating the Memorial to the late Prince Consort, September 5.(7)

6th. September Thursday
Rev. Charles Burton, D.C.L., F.L.S., died of typhus fever at Durham, where he was on a visit, September 6. He was born at Middleton in 1793, and educated at the University of Glasgow and St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated LL.B. in 1822, and was incorporated at Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1829, receiving the degree of D.C.L. He built the church of All Saints', Oxford Road, of which he was the incumbent 1820-1866, He was considered an eloquent preacher. Amongst his numerous works are: Middleton, an Elegiac Poem, Glasgow, 1820, printed for private circulation; The Bardead, Manchester, 1823; Servant's Monitor, Manchester, 1826; Lectures on the Millennium, London, 1841 (he thought it probable that it would begin in 1868!); Lectures on the World before the Flood, Manchester, 1844; Lectures on the Deluge, Manchester, 1845.(7)

11th. September Tuesday
The foundation stone of St. Gabriel's Church, Erskine Street, Hulme, was laid September 11, by the Hon. Wilbraham Egerton, M.P., afterwards Lord Egerton, of Tatton. The church, which is built entirely of brick, from the designs of Messrs. Medland and Henry Taylor, was consecrated February 6, 1869. Lord Egerton, of Tatton, gave £3,500 towards the edifice, the Birley family presented £1,500, and the Manchester Church Building Society made a considerable grant. The tower has not yet been completed.(7)

24th. September Monday
A great open-air demonstration at Campfield of the Northern Branch of the Reform League was held, September 24. Mr. John Bright addressed a meeting in the Free Trade Hall in the evening.(7)

29th. September Saturday
The Manchester and Salford Volunteers were reviewed at Harpurhey, by Colonel Erskine, September 29.(7)

2nd. October Tuesday
The magistrates of Manchester repealed a rule that had been enforced for twenty-three years, requiring the closing of the Local theatres during Passion-week, October 2.(7)

3rd. October Wednesday
The tenth annual congress of the Social Science Association was held in Manchester and opened with service in the Cathedral, October 3. The sermon was preached by the Rev. Canon Richson. In the evening addresses were delivered at the Free Trade Hall by the Earl of Shaftesbury (the president) and other distinguished persons. On the 5th a working man's meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall in connection with the Social Science Association, when addresses were delivered by the Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G., Lord Brougham, and other members of the association. On the 9th there was a banquet at the Assize Courts.(7)

6th. October Saturday
The Free Library, Rusholme Road, was opened October 6. The Earl of Shaftesbury and other members of the Social Science Association took part in the proceedings.(7)

18th. October Thursday
The festival of the cathedral choirs took place in the Manchester Cathedral, October 18.(7)

31st. October Wednesday
The first of the Manchester Science Lectures was delivered in the Carpenter's Hall, Brook Street, October 31, by Professor H. E. Roscoe. Several series of these lectures were given, the last discourse being delivered December 3, 1879 (see under that date).(7)

7th. November Wednesday
The workmen employed at the Manchester Gas Works struck for an advance of wages, November 7.(7)

13th. November Tuesday
Rev. William Maciardie Bunting died in London, November 13. He was he eldest son of Dr. Jabez Bunting, and was born at Manchester, November 23, 1805. He was educated at Woodhouse Grove School, and became a minister of the Wesleyan Connexion, succeeding his father in the Manchester Circuit in 1827. There is a biographical notice of him by his brother, Mr. T. P. Bunting, prefixed to a memorial volume of selections from his sermons, letters, and poems. A portrait forms the frontispiece.(7)

17th. November Saturday
Great damage was done in Manchester and Salford by the unprecedented floods in the rivers Irwell and Medlock, November 17.(7)

18th. November Sunday
Rev. Francis Russell Hall, D.D., rector of Fulborne, died November 18, aged 78. He was a son of the Rev. Samuel Hall, of St. Ann's, and was born at Manchester, May 17, 1788. He was educated at the Grammar School and at St. John's College, Cambridge. He wrote Hints to Young Clergymen, 1843, and other works. (Manchester School Register, ii. 215.)(7)

20th. November Tuesday
A great Reform banquet was held in the Free Trade Hall, November 20, Mr. George Wilson presiding. About 1,000 gentlemen sat down to dinner.(7)

20th. November Tuesday
Mr. Thomas Heywood, F.S.A., died at Hope End, near Ledbury, Herefordshire, November 20. He was the third son of Mr. Nathaniel Heywood, and his eldest brother was Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart. He was born in Manchester September 3, 1797. He was the author of The Earls of Derby, and the Verse Writers of the 16th and 17th Centuries; The South Lancashire Dialect; and edited several volumes for the Chetham Society. He was boroughreeve of Salford in 1826. In 1840 he was High Sheriff of the county of Hereford. (Manchester School Register iii., page 74, and Baker's Memorials, page 116.)(7)

6th. December Thursday
A testimonial consisting of a silver centrepiece and a sum of £800 was presented to Mr. J. W. Maclure, by the members of the Central Executive Relief Committee, for his able services, gratuitously rendered, during the cotton panic of 1862-5, December 6. On December 18 he was presented with a silver salver and a sum of £5,000, the proceeds of a general subscription in Lancashire and Cheshire, for his exertions during the cotton panic.(7)

11th. December Tuesday
A meeting was held in the Town Hall, and a proposition carried, to raise a sum of £10,000 for the endowment of a chair of engineering at the Owens College, December 11.(7)

11th. December Tuesday
Four men, Batt, Leeson, and two Douglasses, were tried at Liverpool Assizes for a robbery at the Stamp Office, Manchester, December 11 and 12. The prisoners, whilst confined after trial at the New Bailey, Salford, gave information which led to the recovery of £8,000 of the stolen property. Batt was sentenced to ten years' penal servitude, and the other three to fifteen years' penal servitude.(7)

22nd. December Tuesday
Free Lance, No. 1, was published December 22. Its first editor was Mr. John Howard Nodal, but it underwent many changes, and had a varied career.(7)

1866
Country Words, a weekly periodical published by John Heywood. It was edited by Charles Hardwick, but stopped at the seventeenth number.(7)

1866
A meeting in connection with the National Temperance League was held at the Free Trade Hall, under the presidency of Mr. George Cruikshank, the famous artist.(7)

1866
Mr. Elijah Ridings gave an introductory address-which was afterwards printed-on Free Discussion, to the Manchester Discussion Forum.(7)

1866
29 and 30 Victoria. Clauses relating to the establishment of the proposed Manchester Corporation Savings Bank, with the sections of the Savings Banks Acts intended to be incorporated.(7)