1876       

17th. January Monday
A monster "spelling bee" was held in the Free Trade Hall on January 17, when £30 was offered in prizes and upwards of 400 competitors took part.(7)

19th. January Wednesday
The annual presentation of prizes to the Third Manchester Rifle Volunteers by the Countess of Ellesmere took place at the Free Trade Hall, January 19.(7)

20th. January Thursday
A stormy town's meeting was held at the Town Hall on January 20, to protest against the amended slave circular issued by the Admiralty, and ultimately a resolution was carried calling upon the Government to entirely cancel the instructions.(7)

22nd. January Saturday
Mr. William Romaine Callender, one of the representatives of the city in Parliament, died on January 22, aged 51. For some time he had been suffering from rheumatic neuralgia and prostration of the nervous system, but, in accordance with medical advice, was on his way to the south of France, when the prostration so increased that he stayed at St. Leonard's-on-the-Sea, and died in that town. He was the eldest son of the late Mr. William Romaine Callender, and was from his youth connected with his father's business, a merchant and manufacturer, which was greatly extended of late years by the purchase of other mills. Mr. Callender was the chairman of the South-East Lancashire Conservative Association, and connected with numerous societies and clubs in aid of the objects of his party. As a Freemason, he was deputy-provincial grand master for Lancashire, and grand master of the Mark Masons of England. For twenty years he was honorary secretary of the Athenĉum, succeeding Mr. John Ashton Nicholls. A liberal supporter of the medical charities of the city, he was a deputy treasurer of the Royal Infirmary, president of the Southern Hospital for the Diseases of Women and Children, and treasurer of the Northern Counties Hospital for Incurables. He was one of the first officers of the 1st Manchester Volunteers, was a member of the Manchester School Board for three years, and was a vice-president of the United Kingdom Alliance. He was treasurer of the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes from its reconstruction in 1862, and was a liberal contributor to its funds. He also became a director of the Cobden Mill Co-operative Company, at Sabden, thus associating himself somewhat with the co-operative movement. He was a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Lancashire, and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. In 1874 he was returned with Mr. Birley at the general election, it being the first time that Manchester had returned two Conservative members, since its enfranchisement. He was buried at St. John's Church, Heaton Mersey, on January 29.(7)

January
A suit, brought by the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of the city of Manchester, against Messrs. Christopher Peverley, and Thomas Blakey and their tenants for an infringement of the Corporation market rights, was heard in London before George Little, Esquire, Q.C., the Vice-Chancellor of the County Palatine of Lancaster, on seven days in the month of January. On the 24th April the Vice-Chancellor gave judgment in favour of the Corporation, on the question of the defendants having, in effect, set up a rival market, but he also held that the old manorial market rights were entirely superseded by the Manchester Markets Act, 1846. The case is reported on the latter point in Law Reports 22, Chancery Division, 294 (note.)(7)

2nd. February Wednesday
Mr. Evan Leigh died in Manchester, February 2, 1876. He was a native of Ashton-under-Lyne, where he was born in 1871?. He was well known as a practical man of science, and was the author of an important work on The Science of Modern Cotton Spinning, 1872.(7)

15th. February Tuesday
A Bill was introduced in the House of Commons to enable the Postmaster General to obtain a site for the extension of the Manchester Post 0ffice. Feb. 15.(7)

17th. February Thursday
The election for a representative in the House of Commons in room of the late Mr. Callender took place on February 17, the candidates being Mr. Jacob Bright (L.), and Mr. Francis Sharpe Powell (C.) The official declaration was Bright 22,770, and Powell 20,985. The vote polled by Mr. Bright was then the largest ever given to a candidate by a borough constituency in the United Kingdom, and Mr. Powell then stood second.(7)

15th. March Wednesday
The annual meeting of the Manchester School of Art took place at the Royal Institution on March 15. Alderman Heywood stated that a gentleman had expressed a willingness to place £100,000 in the hands of the Corporation for the purposes of an art gallery.(7)

17th. March Friday
A large fire broke out early on Friday morning, March 17, at a warehouse in Sackville Street, Portland Street, and owing to the high wind considerable damage was done.(7)

18th. March Saturday
Signor Salvini, the great Italian actor, performed at the Queen's Theatre during the week ending March 18.(7)

31st. March Friday
A stormy town's meeting was held March 31 to consider the Royal Titles Bill, and the following resolution was passed: "That this meeting deeply regrets the proposal to advise Her Most Gracious Majesty to add the title of Empress of India to that of the Queen of these realms, as prejudicial to the true dignity of the Crown, repugnant to the national sentiments, and injurious to the interests of the people of the British Empire."(7)

7th. April Friday
39 Victoria, cap. 3. Act to enable Her Majesty's Postmaster-General to acquire a site for the extension of the Manchester General Post Office. April 7.(7)

12th. April Wednesday
At a meeting of the City Council, on April 12, it was decided that "all fairs now holden in the city be discontinued," and the passing of this resolution involved the stoppage of Knot Mill Fair. August 3.(7)

14th. April Friday
The annual conference of the Sunday school teachers of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire was held in Manchester on April 14, when Sir Charles Reed, chairman of the London School Board presided, and gave an address.(7)

24th. April Monday
Mr. George Southam, F.R.C.S., died at his residence, Oakfield House, Pendleton, on April 24. He was born in 1816, and he was for thirty years one of the surgeons of the Royal Infirmary. Mr. Southam was the author of some medical treatises. (Manchester School Register, vol. iii, p. 226.)(7)

14th. May Sunday
Mr. Samuel Greg died at Bollington, near Macclesfield, May 14. He was born in King Street, Manchester, September 6, 1804. He was author of Scenes from the Life of Jesus, 1869, and of several miscellaneous works. A collection of his papers was published after his death, under the title of A Layman's Legacy, with an interesting memoir, and a preface by Dean Stanley. (Unitarian Herald, May 26, 1876.)(7)

21st. May Sunday
The Rev. Charles Brierley Garside died at Posillippo, Naples, May 21. He was the son of Joseph Garside, surgeon, was born in Manchester, April 6, 1818, and educated at the Grammar School, where he obtained an exhibition in 1837. He was sent to Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1838. He graduated B.A. in 1841, and MA in 1844. He was ordained in 1842 by the Bishop of Gloucester, and was curate in various parishes. On June 21, 1850, Garside was received into the Church of Rome, and ordained priest at Rome, December 23, 1854. He was chaplain to Bertram, Earl of Shrewsbury, and officiated in Chelsea, and from 1861 in Somers Town. He was the author of numerous religious works, including the Prophet of Carmel, 1873.(7)

6th. June Tuesday
Mr. Abraham Walter Paulton died at Boughton Hall, Surrey, June 6. He was a native of Bolton, and was born in 1812. He was the editor of the Anti-Bread Tax Circular, the League, and from 1848 to 1854 edited the Manchester Examiner and Times.(7)

8th. June Thursday
Mr. John Harrop died June 8. He was born at Tideswell in 1803, and obtained employment in the Bank of Manchester. In 1841 he was appointed assistant clerk, and in September, 1845, chief clerk, to the guardians of the poor of Manchester. Owing to declining health he resigned his position in 1871.(7)

7th. July Friday
The hundred and seventh anniversary of the consecration of St. John's Church, Byrom Street, Deansgate, was celebrated on July 7.(7)

10th. July Friday
Sir James Bardsley, M.D., an eminent physician, died at his residence, Greenheys, on July 10th, aged 75. A native of Nottingham, he studied at the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, at the latter of which he graduated as doctor of medicine in 1823. The following year he came to Manchester, and his uncle soon after retiring from the post of physician to the Royal Infirmary, he was elected to the post. In the same year he associated himself with the late Dr. Turner, in connection with the Manchester School of Medicine, and was appointed lecturer on the principles and practice of physic, materia meclica, and medical botany. In 1853 he received the honour of knighthood. He continued as physician to the Infirmary until 1843, when he retired, and was appointed honorary consulting physician, which post he held until his death. In 1850 he was elected president of the Manchester Medico-Ethical Association, an office which he held for some years, and was at one time president of the Manchester Institution for Diseases of the Ear. He held the position of a justice of the peace and a deputy lieutenant of the County Palatine of Lancaster. He married Elizabeth, widow of the Rev. R. H. Shuttleworth, and daughter of Lieutenant Brunts, R.N., in 1831, and survived the lady three years.(7)

14th. July Friday
As the 4-25 p.m. train from Bowdon to Manchester was passing Cornbrook, on July 14, the engine ran off the metals and overturned. The engine driver was killed, but no one else was injured, although great damage was done to the rolling-stock.(7)

21st. July Friday
A town's meeting to protest against vivisection and to support Lord Carnarvon's Bill was held in the Town Hall, July 21. The Bishop of Manchester was the principal speaker.(7)

26th. July Wednesday
The death of Mr. Elijah Dixon, at New Moston, on July 26, aged 86, removed a somewhat notable personage. A native of Kirkburton, in Yorkshire, he was born October 23, 1790, and was eleven years old when, his father bringing his family to Manchester, he began life in a cotton mill. He became a piecer and a spinner, and remained at that employment for many years. Subsequently he became a milkseller, then a travelling peddler, and then a manufacturer of pill boxes. This latter business grew until he became a timber merchant and a manufacturer of match boxes and matches. Elijah Dixon was an early and ardent politician, and as early as 1816 was one of the chief movers of the resolutions which were brought forward in favour of universal suffrage. Delegates were sent from Manchester to attend the Reform Conference in London ; riots took place in London during the winter of 1816; in the March following the Habeas Corpus Act was suspended, and on the 12th of that month Elijah Dixon was arrested, on the charge of high treason, while spinning at Mr. Houldsworth's mill, in Manchester. He was lodged in the New Bailey Prison, Salford, and then, in the dead of night, he was removed, double ironed, and sent off in the mail coach to London. He was taken to the Home Office, and arraigned before Lord Sidmouth and other officials. The interview was short, and in reply to questions, Mr. Dixon said, "I am not guilty, and I don't know who is:" He was removed to Tothill Fields Prison, where he remained eight weeks, and was then released, and returned to his former labour at Manchester. Mr. Dixon was present at Peterloo, and from that time till his death was actively engaged in promoting political movements, as well as in the advocacy of temperance and other social questions.(7)

29th. July Saturday
A Scottish Fête was held at Manley Park, July 29.(7)

3rd. August Thursday
The Manchester fairs, known as Knot Mill Fair, Whit-Monday Fair, Acres or Aca's Fair, and Dirt Fair were abolished by order of the Home Secretary, dated August 3, and advertised in the local papers under the powers given by the Fairs Act, 1871.(7)

12th. August Saturday
The Rev. Charles Dallas Marston, M.A., died at East Sheen, August 12. He was born 1824, and was rector of Kersal from 1866 to 1873. He was the author of several theological works.(7)

18th. August Friday
The Rev. Robert Halley, D.D., died at Batworth Park, near Arundel, August 18. He was born at Blackheath, Kent, August 13, 1796. He was educated at the Dissenting College, Homerton; and in 1826 appointed Classical Professor of the Dissenting College, Highbury. Dr. Halley preached his first sermon as minister of the Congregational Chapel, Mosley Street, July 21, 1839. In June, 1848, the new Cavendish Street Chapel was opened. He remained pastor until 1857, when he became principal of the New College, St. John's Wood. He was author of Congregational Lectures on the Sacraments, 2 vols., 1844-5, and Lancashire, its Puritanism and Noncomformity, 2 vols, 1869. There is a portrait of him in A Short Biography of the Rev. Robert Halley, D.D., with selections of his sermons, by his son, Rev. R. Halley, M.A., London, 1879. He is buried at Abney Cemetery.(7)

22nd. August Tuesday
By a fire which broke out in Holt Town, August 22, Mr. Carson, manufacturing chemist, and a boy in his employ lost their lives. Mr. W. H. Rhodes, the foreman, also died next day in consequence of injuries received.(7)

24th. August Thursday
Mr. John Roberton, M.D., died at New Mills, August 24. He was born near Hamilton, Lanarkshire, 1791, but was for many years a prominent citizen of Manchester. He was author of Essays and Notes on Physiology of Women, and Mortality of Children, 1827; pamphlets on the climate of Manchester, and others on medical, sanitary, and educational subjects, 1830-60.(7)

6th. September Wednesday
Mr. John Ivon Mosley died at Manchester, September 6. He was born at Piccadilly, Manchester, December 7, 1830, and was an extraordinary self-taught linguist. He is said to have been a considerable contributor to Kelly's Manx, Dictionary, published by the Manx Society, and was the writer of some gipsy songs and other trifles in Ben Bierley's Journal. He was employed as a compositor and printer's reader, and endured much privation.(7)

23rd. September Saturday
A drinking fountain, erected by the members of seventeen Bands of Hope in Chorlton and Hulme, was opened in Alexandra Park on September 23.(7)

2nd. October Monday
The Right Hon. John Bright, M.P., was present at a soiree of the Manchester Reform Club, on October 2, and delivered an address.(7)

26th. October Thursday
A meeting was held, October 26, under the auspices of the Manchester and Salford Shorthand Writers' Association, to welcome Mr. Isaac Pitman, and to hear from him a statement of the present position of phonography and the spelling reform. Dr. Samuel Crompton presided. A report was printed in pamphlet form.(7)

26th. October Thursday
The new Conservative Club, at the corner of Cross Street and St. Ann Street, opened by Mr. Richard Assheton Cross, Home Secretary, October 26.(7)

16th. November Thursday
Mr. H. B. Peacock died November 16. He was born December 9, 1801, educated at the Grammar School, and apprenticed to a tailor and draper, and engaged in business in St. Ann's Square. It was mainly owing to Mr. Peacock's enterprise that the erection of the Prince's Theatre was due. About 1840 Mr. Peacock aided in the establishment of the short-lived North of England Magazine, to which he contributed articles on Manchester Society. Mr. Peacock, about middle life, surrendered his business engagements and joined the staff of the Manchester Examiner and Times. Mr. Peacock was also a poet, and one of his effusions, A Can of Cream from Devon, came under the notice of Leigh Hunt, and secured his approbation.(7)

22nd. November Wednesday
Rev. John Relly Beard, D.D., died at Ashton-on-Mersey, November 22. He was born at Southsea in 1800, but in 1825 came to Manchester as minister of the Unitarian Chapel, Greengate; afterwards removed to New Bridge Street, Strangeways. After 1865 he was minister of the Sale Unitarian Church. He was an earnest worker in the cause of education, and the author of a long series of theological writings.(7)

26th. November Sunday
Sir Elkanah Armitage, Knight, died at Hope Hall, November 26. Sir Elkanah was born at Newton Heath, September 6, 1794. In early life he opened a draper's shop in Blackfriars Street. He then became a manufacturer of bedticks, in Macdonald's Lane and also in Cannon Street. He gave up his shop and took a mill at Swinton, and from there removed to Pendleton. In 1838 he was boroughreeve of Salford, and as such laid the first stone of Victoria Bridge. In 1838 Mr. Armitage was elected councillor for Exchange Ward, Manchester, and became an alderman in 1841. On November 9th, 1846, he was elected mayor, an office which he served for two years. During his second year of office there was great distress in the country and there were riots. Owing chiefly to the advice of Mr. Alderman Heywood, the mayor and corporation made extensive preparations for the preservation of the peace, and every attempt at rioting was immediately put down. For his services as mayor during these times, Mr. Armitage was knighted in 1848. Sir Elkanah was a trustee of the Grammar School and of the Royal Infirmary. He was J.P. for Manchester, and a J.P. and D.L. for Lancashire, of which, in 1866, he was high sheriff. Sir Elkanah unsuccessfully contested Salford as a Liberal in 1857.(7)

4th. December Monday
Mr. John Hart Estcourt died at Lightcliffe, near Halifax, December 4. He was one of the leading spirits of the Union and Emancipation Society, and was the author of Slavery, Sovereignty, Secession, and Recognition, Manchester, 1863.(7)

6th. December Wednesday
Councillor John Waterhouse died December 6, in his sixty-ninth year. He entered the council in 1866, as the representative of St. James's Ward. He was three times re-elected without opposition.(7)

23rd. December Saturday
One hundred and sixty-two thousand Christmas cards passed through the Manchester Post Office during the Saturday, Sunday, and Monday, December 23, 24, and 25.(7)

1876
According to a Parliamentary return, the sum of £1,513,446 had been spent in building or restoring churches in the diocese of Manchester since 1840.(7)