3rd. January Tuesday
Mr. William Harrison Ainsworth, the eminent novelist, died at his residence, at Reigate, January 3. He was born in King Street, Manchester, on February 4, 1805, and was educated partly by his uncle, the Rev. William Harrison, and at the Grammar School. Leaving school, he was articled by his father to Mr. Alexander Kay, solicitor. After finishing his time with Mr. Kay, he studied conveyancing in the office of Mr. Jacob Phillips, in London. Law, however, was not so attractive to him as literature, and about 1826 he commenced business as a publisher in the metropolis, but soon devoted himself entirely to a literary career. From the time when he was a school boy he had been a contributor to different magazines, and when his novel of Rookwood appeared, in 1834, he became a fiction writer of note. In 1840 he succeeded Dickens as editor of Bentley's Miscellany. In this serial, and in his own Ainsworth's Magazine, and in the Sunday Times, were originally published most of the works which succeeded Rookwood. Altogether he wrote some forty novels, which had a large sale at home and abroad, some of them being translated into French, German, Dutch, Russian, and Spanish. Rookwood, Lancashire Witches, Jack Sheppard, were among the best. He also published a volume of poems. Mr. Ainsworth was on September 15, 1881, entertained by Mr. Alderman Baker, mayor of Manchester, at a banquet in the Manchester Town Hall, at which were present about a hundred representatives of the literature, art, and science of the district. He was interred at Kensal Green Cemetery.(7)

25th. January Wednesday
At a special meeting, held January 25, of Convocation of the Victoria University, it was resolved, after some discussion, that the bachelor's degree should be offered to all the associates of Owens College.(7)

The Manchester Quarterly, a Journal of Literature and Art, No. 1, January, published by Abel Heywood and Son for the Manchester Literary Club.(7)

1st. February Wednesday
A great Conservative meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, under the presidency of Mr. W. H. Houldsworth, February 1. Earl Lytton and Baron Henry de Worms were the principal speakers.(7)

2nd. February Thursday
Earl Lytton and Baron Henry de Worms were entertained at luncheon, by the Manchester Conservative Club, February 2.(7)

3rd. February Friday
The members of the Royal Commission on Technical Education entertained at dinner by the Mayor of Manchester, February 3.(7)

4th. February Saturday
Dr. J. Shepherd Fletcher died at his residence, Hope House, Higher Broughton, February 4. He was born at Kirkham House, Prestwich, August, 1822. He studied under his uncle, Dr. Ogden, of Rochdale, and at the Manchester School of Medicine, in Pine Street. He was, early in his career, appointed medical inspector of the factories in Ancoats. It was principally his suggestion which afterwards led to the foundation of the Hospital for Consumption and Diseases of the Throat, in St. John Street. He was the author of a pamphlet on Consumption: its Causes, Prevention, and Cure, and of articles in the Medical Times. He was lecturer on anatomy and secretary of the School of Medicine, at one time established in Chatham Street. His degrees were M.R.C.S. England, 1846; L.S.A., 1847; M.D. St. Andrew's, 1862.(7)

17th. February Friday
By a heavy fall of earth at the Victoria Station extension works, a labourer, named Thomas Gillmore, lost his life, and two other men were seriously injured. February 17.(7)

24th. February Friday
The Salford Board of Guardians resolved to appoint a committee of ladies to visit periodically the women and children in the workhouse at Weaste, February 24.(7)

28th. February Tuesday
A meeting in the Free Trade Hall in furtherance of the object of the Land Emancipation Union. Mr. Joseph Arch was the principal speaker. February 28.(7)

7th. March Tuesday
Right Hon. Thomas Egerton, Earl of Wilton, died, March 7. He was a nobleman of great ability, and an accomplished musician. He was the author of Sports and Pursuits of the English People, 1868. In his youth he had studied surgery, and it was he who first attended to the fatal wounds received by Mr. Huskisson at the opening of the Manchester and Liverpool Railway. In Fanny Kemble's Autobiography there is an interesting picture of the home life at Heaton Park.(7)

17th. March Friday
The Mayor of Manchester opened, in the Campfield Market, the exhibition of appliances for the prevention of smoke and the economising of fuel, held under the auspices of the Manchester Noxious Vapours Abatement Association. March 17.(7)

27th. March Monday
A Government inquiry was held at the Salford Town Hall into an application made by the Salford Corporation for a provisional order embodying somewhat stringent provisions in regard to sanitary matters. March 27.(7)

5th. April Wednesday
The Mayor of Manchester (Alderman Thomas Baker) opened a new free lending library and newsroom adjoining the Campfield Market, in Deansgate. April 5. The total cost of the library, including fittings, was about 12,000.(7)

19th. April Wednesday
The Right Hon. Edward Gibson, M.P., visited Manchester April 19, and was received at the Carlton Club, Spring Gardens. Mr. Gibson afterwards spoke at a Conservative demonstration in St. James's Hall.(7)

2nd. May Tuesday
A destructive fire occurred at Messrs. R. Neill and Sons', contractors, Lower Broughton. May 2.(7)

2nd. May Tuesday
A grand bazaar was held at St. James's Hall for the purpose of assisting the funds of the Lancashire Independent College, Whalley Range, May 2.(7)

11th. May Thursday
Mr. John Partington Aston died May 11. He was born in 1805, and educated at the Grammar School. In 1822 he was articled to Mr. W. Claughton, solicitor, and in the year after was transferred to the office of Mr. Thomas Ainsworth, and afterwards to the office of Mr. James Crossley. In 1829 he became a partner in the firm of Kay, Barlow, and Aston, and in 1854 he began business on his own account. For Mr. John Owens he prepared the will by which were left the means to found the Owens College. He was also the first secretary to the trustees of the college, and, when he resigned that office in 1867, still continued to act as their solicitor. When the Governors were incorporated, 1870 and 1871, he was reappointed solicitor and secretary. He was one of the founders and directors of the Gentlemen's Glee Club. If he was not the sole author he was at least joint author, with Mr. Ainsworth, of the novel of Sir John Chiverton.(7)

12th. May Friday
A meeting of the citizens of Manchester was held in the Town Hall to express, abhorrence at the murder of Lord F. Cavendish and Mr. Burke. May 12.(7)

14th. May Sunday
At a meeting of the John Dillon (Salford) branch of the National Land League of Great Britain, in the Temperance Hall, Ford Street, Salford, it was resolved "That this indignation meeting of Irishmen in Salford denounces in the most emphatic manner the diabolical and fiendish murders of Lord F. Cavendish and Mr. Burke, and tenders its most heartfelt sympathy to their bereaved families." May 14.(7)

15th. May Monday
A meeting of the residents of Salford, convened by the Mayor, in compliance with a requisition, was held in the Town Hall, for the purpose of expressing indignation at the murder of Lord F. Cavendish and Mr. Burke. May 15.(7)

24th. May Wednesday
Sir John Holker died May 24. He was born at Bury in 1828, and was called to the bar in 1854, and shortly afterwards settled in Manchester, where he soon acquired a large practice. In 1864 he removed to London, and in 1868 became Q.C. In September, 1872, he was elected M.P. for Preston, in the Conservative interest, and in 1874 was made Solicitor-General end knighted. From November, 1875, to April, 1880, he was Attorney-General, and in January, 1882, he was appointed a Lord Justice of Appeal. He was buried at Lytham.(7)

10th. June Saturday
The Mayor of Salford (Alderman Husband) opened the new Cromwell Bridge, over the Irwell, connecting Pendleton with Broughton, June 10. The cost of erection was 10,600.(7)

16th. June Friday
Captain W. H. Palin, formerly chief constable of Manchester, died at Prince's Park, Liverpool, June 16, aged 59 years. He was born in India, his father being an officer of the East India Company. He was educated in England, and when sixteen years old became an ensign in the 17th Bombay Native Infantry, in which regiment he was subsequently adjutant, paymaster, quartermaster, and interpreter. He also for a time performed the duties of cantonment magistrate. In 1856 he resigned his captaincy, and came to England, and was appointed chief constable of Manchester soon after his return. In May, 1881, he resigned, after a most successful and creditable tenure of that office. He was a subscriber to many local charities, and he was generally much respected. He was interred at the Southern Cemetery, Withington.(7)

18th. June Sunday
The Rev. Canon Nicholas William Gibson, sub-dean of the Manchester Cathedral, died at his residence, the Polygon, Ardwick, on June 18. He was born in 1802, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He was educated at the Moravian School, Fulneck; the Manchester New College, York; and at Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1824, and M.A. in 1827. He gained the Tyrwhitt Hebrew Scholarship in 1826, and was ordained deacon in 1826 and priest in 1827. He was successively chaplain of Trinity College, Cambridge; curate of St. Thomas's, Ardwick; and in 1831 rector of the last-named church. In 1861 he was elected the canon residentiary of Manchester Cathedral, and in 1874 sub-dean, and from the latter year until 1880 he was proctor in the York Convocation for the Cathedral Chapter. Under the Act of 1870 he was appointed a life governor of the Owens College. Two of the stained glass windows of the Cathedral were the gift of Canon Gibson, as well as one in the Chapter House.(7)

20th. June Tuesday
Mr. Thomas Grundy died at his residence, at Lymm, June 20. He was chief of the well-known firm of Manchester solicitors, Messrs. Grundy, Kershaw, and Co. He was in his forty-sixth year, and was born at Lymm.(7)

20th. June Tuesday
Mr. William Henry Ford died June 20. He was the son of Mr. W. Ford, the bookseller, and in early life followed his father's business, and at one time had a shop in Hanging Ditch. For some reason he was not successful, and relinquishing business on his own account he entered into the employment of Mr. Banks, the old bookseller, and subsequently that of Mr. Thompson, in Market Street. For twenty years Mr. Ford was in the employment of Messrs. Capes, Dunn, and Pilcher, who engaged him for making catalogues of libraries for sale. He also catalogued and arranged a number of private libraries. Mr. Ford was buried in the Salford Borough Cemetery. (Palatine Note-Book, vol. ii., p. 155.)(7)

24th. June Saturday
A garden party, promoted by the British calico printers, took place at the Botanical Gardens, Old Trafford, on June 24. Over five thousand persons were present, and the ladies were dressed in British printed calicoes.(7)

27th. June Tuesday
A meeting of mayors of manufacturing towns was held at the residence of Mr. Daniel Adamson, the Towers, Didsbury, to consider the practicability of constructing a tidal waterway between Liverpool and Manchester, June 27.(7)

29th. June Thursday
Mr. Joseph Aloysius Hansom died June 29. He invented the "Hansom" cab, and in conjunction with his son, Mr. Joseph Hansom, executed the Church of the Holy Name, at Manchester.(7)

3rd. July Monday
The Dalton Hall of Residence in Victoria Park opened by Sir J. W. Pease, Bart., M.P. The ball was erected by the Society of Friends for the use of students attending the Owens College. July 3.(7)

11th. July Tuesday
Venerable Archdeacon Anson appointed residentiary canon of the Manchester Cathedral, in the room of Canon Gibson deceased. July 11.(7)

14th. July Friday
Mr. Ralph Milner, "the Oldfield Road Doctor," died, July 14.(7)

10th. August Thursday
45 and 46 Victoria, cap. 203. Act to enable the mayor, alderman, and citizens of the city of Manchester to acquire and maintain an Art Gallery, and for the regulation thereof, to execute works for the purposes of their waterworks, to amend and extend the provisions of the local Acts relating to the city of Manchester, and for other purposes. August 10.(7)

14th. August Monday
Professor William Stanley Jevons was drowned whilst bathing at Bexhill, on the coast of Sussex, on August 14. Mr. Jevons was born in Liverpool in 1835, and educated at the Mechanics' Institution of that city and at the University of London. In 1854 he was appointed assayer to the Australian Royal Mint at Sydney, which position he held for five years. In 1859 he recommenced his studies at London University, and in 1862 graduated M.A. with first class honours. In 1863 he was appointed tutor to the Owens College, and in 1866 professor of logic and philosophy at the same institution. In 1869 he was elected president of the Manchester Statistical Society. In 1872 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1874 a Fellow of the Statistical Society of London. In 1874 and 1875 he was examiner for the Moral Science Tripos at Cambridge, and in the latter year the Senatus Academicus of the Edinburgh University conferred upon him the honorary degree of LL.D. In. 1876 he was appointed examiner in logic and moral philosophy in the London University. In the same year he resigned his professorship at the Owens College. His published writings were many and important, some of them having been translated into other languages. The chief among them are Pure Logic, 1864; Elementary Lessons in Logic, 1874; Theory of Political Economy, 1871; Principles of Science, 1874; Logic and Political Economy, in Macmillan's series of Science Primers, and The State in Relation to Labour. He also contributed largely to numerous periodicals, and was one of the reviewers of the Academy. His remains were interred in the Hampstead Cemetery, London, August 18. A posthumous work, Methods of Social Reform, and a biography have appeared.(7)

17th. August Thursday
A complimentary dinner was given at the Brooklands Hotel, by his Manchester admirers, to Mr. George Jacob Holyoake, prior to his departure for America. Dr. R. M. Pankhurst presided. August 17.(7)

18th. August Friday
A cottagers' flower show was held in Peel Park, August 18. This is believed to be the first exhibition of the kind held under municipal auspices. It was arranged by the Salford Parks and Libraries Committee.(7)

29th. August Tuesday
A conference of miners' delegates was opened in the Mechanics' Institute, August 29. Mr. Thomas Burt, M.P., presided.(7)

15th. September Friday
Mauldeth Hall was opened as a Hospital for Incurables, September 15.(7)

17th. September Sunday
Mr. Christopher Barker died September 17. He was born at Alnwick, Northumberland, in 1815, and wrote an interesting volume on The Associative Principle during the Middle Ages, 1859. He was a compositor in the employment of Messrs. A. Ireland and Co. for twenty-two years.(7)

20th. September Wednesday
The Earl of Wilton opened an Art and Industrial Exhibition in St. James's Hall, Oxford Street, September 20.(7)

26th. September Tuesday
Mr. James Huson-More died, September 26. He was born in Salford in 1844, was educated for the medical profession, and had the qualifications of L.R.C.P.Ed. and F.R.C.S. He travelled in Africa and Australasia, and was a man of great ability, the promise of whose career was destroyed by an early death. He was one of the original members of the Manchester Scientific Students' Association, and was present at its "coming of age soiree."(7)

29th. September Friday
Mr. Thomas Higson, clerk to the Manchester city justices, died at his residence at Alderley, September 29. He was born May 22, 1804, and educated at the Manchester Grammar School. He was articled to his father, and in 1826 began to practise as an attorney. In 1839 he was appointed clerk to the Manchester city magistrates, and in 1849 clerk to the visiting justices of the borough gaol. The latter position he resigned in 1878.(7)

1st. October Sunday
Professor Henry Roscoe, F.R.S., gave the first of a series of lectures on Sunday afternoons, at the New Islington Hall, Ancoats, October 1. These lectures were arranged by the Ancoats Recreation Committee organised by Mr. Charles Rowley, jun.(7)

7th. October Saturday
A Conservative demonstration was held at the St. James's Hall, October 7.(7)

19th. October Thursday
Salford Union Infirmary was erected at Hope, at a cost of 60,000, and was formally opened by Mr. Thomas Dickins, chairman of the Salford Board of Guardians, October 19.(7)

1st. November Wednesday
Vice-Chancellor Greenwood performed the ceremony of conferring the first degrees of the Victoria University, in the Manchester Town Hall, November 1.(7)

4th. November Saturday
The Pulpit Record and Mutual Improvement Society Parliamentary Debating Society Chronicle, No. 1, November 4; 1d. weekly. Capelton and Co., printers. The last number appeared April 28, 1883.(7)

17th. November Friday
A fire broke out at the warehouse of Messrs. G. Hodgkinson and Son, in Princess Street, November 17.(7)

26th. November Sunday
In the Court of Appeal, London, Nov. 26 and 27, the Master of the Rolls and Lord Justices Cotton and Bowen had before them the case of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Corporation of Manchester v. Lyons, an appeal by the plaintiffs from the decision of Vice-Chancellor Bristowe against their claim in the action to restrain the defendants from infringing the market rights claimed by the Corporation. The primary ground of action was disturbance of the market rights of the Corporation, who were successors in title to the Lord of the Manor of Manchester, and contended that the old manorial rights purchased by them still existed in the Corporation, only confirmed and codified by the Manchester Markets Acts passed in 1840. Their lordships held that the Act of 1846 had in fact created a new market in place of the old manorial market the Corporation had purchased from the Lord of the Manor. On the second point of disturbance of the market by the defendants there was no evidence of such disturbance in this case. Accordingly the defendants were not liable, as alleged, and the appeal was dismissed with costs.(7)

4th. December Monday
A meeting in support of evicted tenants in Ireland was held in the Salford Town Hall. Among the speakers were Mr. F. H. O'Donnell, M.P., and Mr. M. J. Kenny, M.P. December 4.(7)

8th. December Friday
At a town's meeting held in the Salford Town Hall under the presidency of the Mayor, resolutions in favour of the Ship Canal project were adopted. December 8.(7)

11th. December Monday
A meeting was held at the Town Hall, Manchester, for the purpose of considering the question of establishing a home for the widows or unmarried daughters of professional men and merchants who have been left by the death of a parent, husband, or otherwise with inadequate means. Resolutions approving of the opening of a "Home" in Higher Broughton were passed. December 11.(7)

16th. December Saturday
The Right Rev. Alfred Ollivant, D.D., Bishop of Llandaff, died December 16. He was born at Manchester, August 16, 1798, was Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge and Vice-Principal of Lampeter College, and in November, 1847, was appointed to the bishopric of Llandaff.(7)

27th. December Wednesday
A special general meeting of the members of the Manchester Mechanics Institution was held December 27, when the new rules submitted by the Directors for the government of the Technical School about to be established in connection with the Institution were considered and adopted.(7)

31st. December Sunday
Mr. George Falkner, typographer and lithographer, died December 31. He was born at Edinburgh in 1817, his father, Mr. Andrew Falkner, being one of the masters of the High School. Mr. G. Falkner was apprenticed to the printing trade in his native city, and afterwards employed in the Government Printing Office in London. In 1841 he came to Manchester, and began an active literary career in connection with Mr. George Bradshaw, acting as editor of Bradshaw's Manchester Journal, which was first published in May of that year. He subsequently commenced business on his own account, as an artistic printer, and it was not long before he was at the head of an extensive business. In 1852 he published his own Notes on Algiers, and in 1882 A Pilgrimage to the Shrine of Our Lady of Loreto. He was a frequent contributor to the local papers. He was for many years a member of the Council of the Manchester Royal Institution, and the scheme was his which transferred that institution to the Corporation. He died on the day before that on which the transfer was officially made.(7)

Some remarkable incidents in the history of local journalism occurred during the year. The North Times began July 25, as a penny evening paper, in the interests of the Conservative party. The Latest News was started from the same office, September 11, as a halfpenny morning paper. The proprietors of the Evening News started the Morning News, September 14, and the proprietors of the Evening Mail started the Morning Mail on the same date. The North Times became a halfpenny evening paper September 25. This batch of daily papers did not prove long-lived, for the North Times and the Latest News came to an end December 15, and were followed on December 30 by the Morning Mail and Morning News-as soon as it was clear that their new rivals had been disposed of. The unsuccessful attempt to float the North Times was said to have caused a loss of 16,000 to its proprietors.(7)