Manchester, the second town and city in the kingdom, a parliamentary and corporate borough, market town, township, and parish in the hundred of Salford, the division, polling district, and barony of Manchester, and a township of the parish, is a parliamentary borough. The parliamentary borough of Manchester comprises  the townships of Manchester, Chorlton - on - Medlock, Hulme, Cheetham, Ardwick, Harpurhey, Bradford, and Beswick. The corporate borough of Manchester consists of the townships of Manchester, Chorlton - on - Medlock, Hulme, Ardwick, Cheetham, and Beswick. The parish of Manchester, comprising 34,507 statute acres, contains thirty townships, namely, Manchester, (distinctly governed in parochial affairs), Salford, and Broughton with Kersall, (in Salford poor law union), Chorlton - on - Medlock, Hulme, Ardwick, Stretford, Moss-side, Levenshulme, Rushulme, Didsbury, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Withington, Gorton, Openshaw, and Burnage, (in Chorlton poor law union), Droylsden, Denton, Haughton, (in Ashton-under-lyne poor law union), Heaton Norris, Reddish, (in Stockport poor law union), Cheetham, Newton, Failsworth, Moston, Blackley, Harpurhey, Bradford, Beswick, and Crumpsall, (in Manchester registration union).

Manchester township comprises 1,577 statute acres, on the east bank of the Irwell, the south of Irk, and the north of Medlock, in lat. 53 25 10", W. long. 2 10 30", 184 miles N.N.W. of London by highroad,  210 by railway, 36 miles E.N.E. of Liverpool by highroad, 30 by railway, and 53 S.S.E. of Lancaster by highroad. Two Roman stations, and four minor forts were erected on this site about A.D. 79. A well of very early date, a portion of Roman wall in Castlefield, traces of a station there, discoveries of altars, urns, earthen vessels, celts, stones, pewter dishes, &c. form the Roman antiquities of this place. The town was re-edified by Edward the elder, in 923, and became the seat of a Saxon baron; the baron's hall is said to have been near the collegiate church. The Norman barony comprised 35 tenancies. The manor of Manchester is co-extensive with the township. Court leet are held twice a year. The old halls of interest are Ancoats, and Garrett, existed prior to 1490; Collyhurst Hall, Alport Lodge, and Poolfold Lodge are not existing. Manchester suffered three sieges during the civil wasr, all in 1642; there was a serious pestilence in 1645; the Rebels of 1745 visited the town; and there have been several riots. The first church was St. Michael's, built about A.D. 630; a second, named St. Mary's, is said to have been founded about 634; they were both superseded at an early period by a parish church, and that by the present parish and collegiate church, founded July 28, 1422, re-edified 1468, 1485, 1638, 1698, 1815, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, St. Dionise, and St. George,-the collegiate body consists of a dean and four canons, formerly a warden, and four fellows, who appoint two chaplains, two clerks, four singing men, and four choristers,-on the next vacancy of either of the sees of St. Asaph or Bangor this church will become a cathedral, and there will be a bishop, and the warden and fellows will become dean and chapter,-the net revenues per annum in 1535 were 213, in 1837 4,025,-the dean is appointed by the crown,-the choir is one of the finest in England, the tabernacle work is admirable, and there are thirty grotesquely carved stalls.-The other churches in Manchester are 13, total 14; namely, St. Ann's, built 1711, annual value 380; St. Mary's, 1755, 166; St. Paul's, 1764, 293; St.John's, 1768, 290; St. James's, 1787, 158; St. Michael's, 1788, 72; St. Peter's, 1789, 160; St. Clement's, 1793; St. George's, 1798, 220; St. Matthew's, 1823, cost 14,000, 271; St. Andrew's, 1830, cost 14,000, 144; St. Jude's, 1836; and one in Ancoats, not completed, 1839-40; the patronage is in various hands, but chiefly in the collegiate body.-There are two episcopal cemeteries, Ashley-lane, and Walker's croft, in the latter is a chapel, date 1815.-The Catholics have 5 chapels, Rook-street, date 1774; Mulberry-street; Granby-row, cost 10,000; Back Mosley-street; and Livesey-street: the Wesleyan Methodists 6, Oldham, Bridgewater, Ancoats, and Bradford streets, Oldham road, and Collyhurst; Independents 5, Cannon, Mosley, Grosvenor, Every, and Cable streets; Wesleyan Association 3, Lever, and Tonman streets, and Oldham road; Baptists 3, York-street, Withy-grove, and St. George's road; General Baptists 3, Great Mount, Oak, and Major streets; Primitive Methodists 3, Jersey, Chapel, and Mayes streets; Methodist New Connexion 2, Oldham and Peter streets; Scotch Church 2, St. Peter's square, and Ancoats; Welsh Baptists 2, Clarence-street, and Granby-row; Bible Christians, Every-street; Friends, Dickinson-st; Unitarian, Cross-st.; Irvingites, Oxford-street; Independent Methodists, Hanover-st.; Swedenborgian, Peter-st.; Presbyterians Scotch Secession Church, Lloyd-st.; Welsh Calvinists, Cooper-st.; Welsh Independents, Gartside-street; Welsh Methodists, Lees-street; Welsh Wesleyans, Hardman-street; and Jews, Halliwell-street, 1 each; total dissenters chapels 40, exclusive of 5 Catholic, and 1 Jews. A baronial charter was granted to Manchester, May 14, 1301, by the lord of the manor, Thomas de Gresley; it authorizes the burgesses to appoint a reeve, boroughreeve : for several centuries an officer elected at the manorial court, and named the boroughreeve, has been the chief executive authority; he is assisted by two constables, also chosen at the manor court; these officers possessed the sole direction of the day police of the township,-and a body of police commissioners, originally constituted in 1791, to regulate and improve the town, provided a night police.-In 1816 the day police consisted of a deputy constable, and four beadles, and the night police of 53 watchmen; in 1836 day 31, night 116; 1838-9 day 41, night 180, for the township : these two forces continued to form the executive body till May, 1839, when the town council, who were elected pursuant to a royal charter granted 1838, appointed 90 men for a day police, and 205 men for a night police, for the corporate borough, thus rival police forces were created, rendering the number of constables 516; after five months' contention betwixt the police commissioners and town council, the entire management of the police was withdrawn from both parties, and vested in a government commissioner, by an act of parliament, to be of temporary existence, passed August 26, 1839; the present police force, constituted according to this act, for the corporate borough, consists of 319 policemen, and 64 officers, total 383, yearly cost 21,700, raised by rates. Petit sessions are held daily for the corporate borough, by the borough magistrates, the mayor, and occasionally the stipendiary magistrate, at the Court House; and daily at the New Bailey, Salford, for the borough and county, by the county magistrates, and stipendiary magistrate,-the latter appointed by the crown, in right of the duchy, by an act passed 1813 : quarter sessions are held for the corporate borough by a recorder,-first held June 26, 1839; and quarter and intermediate sessions for the hundred of Salford, by a stipendiary chairman, first appointed 1805, and other magistrates. At present there are two coroners, one corporate, and the other county. The civil courts are a manorial court leet, twice a year; court baron, for debts, every three weeks; county court, commenced here 1822, monthly, for debts; court of requests, for the parish, first held 1808, sits fortnightly; court of record, for the corporate borough, for debts, granted October 23, 1838, to be held weekly, not yet commenced; there is also the Salford hundred court, every three weeks. The boroughreeve of Manchester superintends certain charities, and is treasurer of the police funds. The head constables frequently preside at police commissioners' meetings. The police commissioners, 240 in number, 80 of whom retire or are re-elected yearly by rate-payers of certain assessments in 14 police districts, are authorized by acts passed 1791, 1829, and other acts, to regulate and improve the township streets by lighting, paving, &c., which are directed by various sub-committees. The police rate for 1839-40 was 33,929; the costs of lighting and scavenging were 14,747, watch 2,514, finance 2,514, and paving and soughing 675. The corporation, created by a royal charter, granted October23, 1838, on the petition of a meeting of inhabitants, held February 9, 1838, and constuted according to the municipal corporations act, consists of a council of 48, elected by qualified householders, in 15 wards, 6 for New Cross, and 3 each for the rest-first election December, 1838-these wards are New Cross, St. Michael's, Collegiate Church, St. Clement's, Exchange, Oxford, St. James's, St. John's, St. Ann's, in Manchester; All Saints', and St. Luke's, in Chorlton - on - Medlock; St. George's, and Medlock-street, in Hulme; Ardwick, comprising Ardwick and Beswick; and Cheetham, comprising Cheetham : the council elect a mayor, and sixteen aldermen,-there is a recorder, coroner, and other officers : the corporation have levied a rate of 23,400, but as the validity of the charter is disputed the rate has not been paid-the present corporate funds are raised by subscription : the council claim the powers of watching, lighting, &c. The number of corporate electors is about 12,000. The profits of the gas works, which were erected by the commissioners of police, are appropriated to the effecting of public improvements, by directors appointed by the commissioners; the principal part of these proceeds are expended by the improvement committee of the police commissioners, who were formed 1828 : in 1833 the committee expended 19,183; 1834, 7,582.-The formation of Victoria terrace, near the collegiate church, which was effected from 1833 to 1839, is a noble improvement.-The improving of Market-street, and nine other streets, by a special act, 1821-1834, cost 232,900. The highways of the township are repaired and regulated by surveyors, elected by the rate-payers pursuant to an act passed 1818-19 : in 1839-40 the highway rate was 14,100, net expenditure 25,200. Manchester returned a member to parliament in 1654, and another in 1656, but was not fully enfranchised as a parliamentary borough till June 7, 1832, when by the Reform Bill the townships previously named were rendered a borough, two members are returned, returning officers the boroughreeve and constables, or mayor, number of voters 1839, 11,995. A weekly market was held prior to 1292. In addition to the old market a market was formed in Pool-fold, 1781, but discontinued 1803 : there are now four markets, Market-place, for fish, erected 1828, on the site of the ancient market; Smithy door, of early date, noted for poultry and vegetables, disused; Bridge-street, for butchers' meat, built 1803; Smithfield, Shudehill, for cattle, formed 1822 : there is also London road, for butchers' meat, date 1824, to be removed : the Corn Exchange and Cheese Hall are markets. Saturday is the principal market day for general business, and Tuesday for the sale of cotton goods and twist, but there are markets daily. The annual consumption of butchers' meat in 1836 in the town and environs was 36,097,160lbs. A fair was granted in 1222, confirmed 1229 : the present fairs are Easter Monday and Tuesday, and October 1, 2, 3. This place is the principal seat of the cotton manufacture; situated in a district rich in minerals, and well stored by water, it is admirably adapted for an emporium of trade. Woollens, named cottons, in imitation of foreign cottons, were manufactured here as early as 1313, and the name has been construed to mean real cottons, but the cotton trade was not in reality introduced till about 1586-its progress was slow for a considerable period, but in 1727 the trade in fustians was deemed amazingly large-the consumption of cotton wool at that period did not amount to 1-200th part of the present consumption : the annual value of the trade of the town in 1766 was about 300,000, present yearly value about 17,000,000. The first cotton mill by steam power erected here was in 1783 : in 1804 there were in the township upwards of 20 mills; 1820, 44; 1823, 49; 1826, 63; 1829, 63; 1832, 68; 1836, 74 : hands employed 1836, males 9,525, females 11,095. The aggregate of horses power engaged in cotton spinning and power loom weaving in the borough in 1838 was 5,272. The number of cotton mills in the range of country of which Manchester is the trading depot was in 1834 934, steam power, horses, 26,513, water 6,093; total hands employed 175,268. There are upwards of 6,000 hand loom weavers in the town, chiefly of light cottons and silks. The modern silk trade was introduced shortly before 1816 : in 1832 there were about 700 silk weavers in the township, and in the adjacent 14,000. In 1836 the number of silk mills here was 8, number of hands 1,864.-The steam power engaged in this trade in 1838, in Manchester, was that of 237 horses. There are extensive incidental businesses, as cotton thread, small ware, hat and woollen manufactories, bleaching, dying, calico printing, engraving, fustian shearing, and chemical works, machine manufactories, foundries, saw mills, and coal mining. The number of operatives in manufactures in the township is about 15,000; see article Salford hundred. The rivers Irwell and Mersey were rendered navigable to Liverpool by an act passed 1720; hitherto the vessels have been of about 50 tons, but the rivers are now deepening for vessels of 200 tons burthen. The canals are the Duke of Bridgewater's canals, from Manchester to Runcorn, Worsley, and Leigh, formed 1760-1795, at a cost of 220,000-they are said to produce upwards of 90,000. per annum; the Rochdale, to Sowerby-bridge, opened 1804-see Rochdale; the Bolton-le-moors and Bury, 1801; the Ashton-under-lyne, Oldham, Fairbottom, Stockport, and Huddersfield, constructed 1792-1805; the Duke's canal and river Irwell were connected 1838; and the Rochdale canal with the river Irwell, and Bolton canal, in 1839. The canal traffic from Manchester to London, and southward, amounts to 700,000 tons per annum; and from Liverpool and Manchester to Leeds 1,4000,000 tons per annum. The railways directly connected with Manchester are the Liverpool and Manchester Railway-see article Liverpool; the Grand Junction, to Birmingham, 97, and London, 210 miles-see article Liverpool; the Manchester and Birmingham, act passed 1837, is a combination of the projected South Union and Manchester and Cheshire lines, length to Birmingham 77 miles, estimated cost about 3,000,000, the amount expended is about 200,000,-the Manchester and Stockport portion was opened June 4, 1840, length 5 miles-over Fairfield-street, Manchester, is an iron skew bridge 128 feet span, and over the Mersey at Heaton Norris and Stockport a viaduct of 22 arches, 63 feet span each, highest 106 feet from the river; the Manchester and Leeds, act passed 1836, length to Leeds 60 miles, of which10 is on the North Midland railway, cost about 2,000,000,-the Manchester and Littleborough portion opened July 4, 1840, length 13 miles-the principal works are the embankment at Mills Hill, 74 feet in height, and the tunnel at Summit, 2,860 yards in length, and 80 feet below the general surface,-branches are to be formed to Hunts bank Manchester, and to Oldham, and Halifax; the Manchester and Sheffield, act passed 1837, length 39 miles, capital 700,000, will connect Ashton-under-lyne and Stalybridge with Manchester, and is now constructing; the Manchester and Bolton-le-moors-see article Bolton-le-moors-the excavation at Clifton is 101 feet deep, this line cost 600,000. In 1717 the town consisted of about 1,600 inhabited houses; 1757, 2,800; 1773, 3,402; 1788, 5,916; 1801, 10,445; 1811, 12,929; 1821, 17,323; 1831, 22,445; present number about 26,000. Several streets were greatly widened 1766, 1822, 1838-9, and the town is at present in course of much improvement : the number of streets in the whole town is above 2,000. In 1717 the population of the town or township was estimated at upwards of 8,000; in 1757, 16,000; 1773, 22,481; 1777, 28,000; 1788, 42,821; 1801, 70,409; 1811, 79,459; 1821, 108,016; 1831, 142,026; present population about173,000. In 1836 94,250 of the population of Manchester, Chorlton-on-Medlock, &c. inhabited houses, 9,351 rooms, 9,671 boarded, and 14,724 lived in cellars. The baptisms at the parish church in 1600 were 210, burials 141, marriages 72; in 1700, baptisms 231, burials 229, marriages 133; 1800, baptisms 2,2463, burials 1,639, marriages 1,099; 1838, baptisms 5,163, burials 1,457, marriages 2,615.- The burials are principally in other cemeteries. The births average upwards of 6,000 annually, marriages 1,000, and deaths 5,500. The number of unpaved, and consequently filthy, streets was lamentably great not long ago. In 1837 the Scotch population in Manchester amounted to 9,000, the Irish to 50,000. The inhabitants per square mile 73,131. In 1825 the episcopal sunday schools were 21, dissenters 18, catholics 1, scholars 25,714; episcopal daily schools 8, catholic 1, unitarian 1, scholars 2,582. The parliamentary return of schools 1833 states the daily schools of the township as 204, sunday 54, day and evening 8, infant 4, boarding 4. The report of the Statistical Society in 1834 states that the dame schools of the township were 160, common schools 119, superior private and boarding 41, scholars 9,415; evening schools 62, sunday evening schools 30, public day schools 16, scholars 3,049; infant schools 3, scholars 463; day and evening schools 432; church sunday schools 17, scholars 8,081; dissenters sunday schools 40, scholars 14,261; catholic sunday schools 7, scholars 3,701-total 64, scholars 26,043, of which 7,881 were also day and evening scholars-total schools, exclusive of 30 evening schools connected with sunday schools, 466, scholars 32,166. The Free Grammar School was endowed 1520, pursuant to the will of Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, school rebuilt 1776. enlarged 1836, at a cost of 7,500, income about 4,500 per annum-the education is classical and commercial, number of scholars upwards of 200-there are higher and lower schools, and nine masters, the salary of the head master is 600. per annum, 200. per annum may be expended on lectures and apparatus, and 50. on books.-There are twelve exhibitions of 60. per year each, at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge; and in addition to these, fifteen exhibitions at Brazennose college, for under graduates, worth 135. per annum each, founded by William Hulme, Esq., 1691-the school also participates in 16 other scholarships at Oxford, and 16 at Cambridge. Chetham's Hospital, or Blue Coat School, endowed by Humphry Chetham, Esq., provides board, clothing, and instruction to 80 poor boys, of Manchester and Bolton parishes, founded 1653, income of the hospital 2,600. per annum-for library see literary instutions; Deaf and Dumb and Blind schools-see rural part of parish; Poor House school, scholars 60; St. Mary's school, date 1711, Mrs. Hind foundress, scholars 20, income per annum 70; Lancasterian school, 1813, scholars 1,074; National, 1812, scholars 500; Fir-street, scholars 100; Collegiate, prior to 1786, for 60 girls; St. John's 1770, for 20 girls; Cross and Mosley street, 1807, 43 girls : there are also 5 schools supported by subscriptions and scholars' payments.-The infant schools in 1834 were 3, scholars 463.-The National Education Society opened in 1839 two schools; and a Proprietary school, in 500 shares of 50. each, was projected in 1836. The Independents have a college. There are efficient schools at the principal cotton mills. The principal charities are Clark's and Marshall's, 1624-36, above 1,200. per annum given in clothing; Alexander's and Brown's, 70. per annum in bread; Mayer's, 430. per annum to poor; Minshul, 64, to apprentices; Richard's, 100. to widows, &c.; Brearcliffe, 112, to housekeepers; Dauntesey Hulme, Esq. 10,000. to the Infirmary, 1824; and Mrs. Frances Hall, 10,766. to the Jubilee school, 1832. Alms houses, built 1680, and a Poor house of later date were superseded by the present Poor house, which is valued at 30,000, built 1791. The parochial affairs are regulated by a local act, passed 1790. The receipts from rates in 1839 amounted to 37,015, other receipts 25,342, total 62,357; the total net expenditure for the year was 41,460-amongst the items are out-poor 14,151, in-poor 9,563, county, &c. rates 7,162, constables' accounts 5,018. In 1835-6 the number of vagrants that were passed was 3,116. The institutions for relieving the poor are the District Provident Society, formed 1833; Night Asylum for houseless poor, opened 1838, number of inmates 1838-9 17,416; Strangers' Friend Society, date 1791; Samaritan, 1824, Church Clothing, 1822, and Dorcas, 1822, societies; Lying-in-Hospital-see Salford; and FemalePenitentiary-see Hulme. The medical charities are the Royal Infirmary, opened 1752, present ediface built 1754, cased with stone 1832-in 1752 there were 324 patients, 1838, 19,342; Dispensary, erected 1792; Lunatic Hospital, 1765; House of Recovery, 1796; Eye Institution, 1815; Dispensary for Children; Lock Hospital, 1819; Dispensary for diseases of the skin; and Public Baths, 1781. The Royal School of Medicine and Surgery was formed 1825; and a second institution of the same nature 1826. There are 8 missionary, and 6 or 7 bible societies; 10 tract associations; a branch of the Christian Knowledge society; a society to christianize the Jews; a town missionary society, date 1837; Commercial Clerks' society, 1802; Annuitant society, 1807; and Savings' Bank, 1818. The literary and scientific institutions are the Royal Institution, a splendid ediface, cost 31,000, (contains a statue to Dalton), erected 1825-30, projected 1823-here are exhibitions of pictures, and courses of lectures on the fine arts; the Atheneum, an elegant building, founded May 26, 1837, projected 1835, estimated cost 10,000-contains library, reading, news, class and lecture rooms, &c., members 1,300; Chetham Library, founded 1653, by Humphry Chetham, Esq., is in Chetham's hospital, number of volumes 25,000, comprising several valuable MSS. and rare books, open to the public under certain restrictions; Portico reading room and library, opened 1806, in shares-latter contains 11,000 volumes; the Literary and Philosophical Society, formed 1781, is highly eminent for its memoirs, and possesses a handsome hall; Mechanics' Institution, formed 1825, building erected 1826, cost 6,600, comprises school and lecture rooms, library volumes 5,500, reading, &c. rooms, number of members 1,000, the cost of the educational classes in 1839 was 225-scientific exhibitions are occasionally held; Natural History Museum, established 1821, building erected 1835, members 1839, 547; and the Heywood or Miles Platting Institution, founded 1836, by Sir Benjamin Heywood, bart., consists of an artisans' school, lecture room, library, &c. The following institutions are without distinct buildings : Architectural Society, date 1837; Statistical Society, 1834; School of Design, formed 1838; Victoria Gallery, for the illustration and encouragement of practical science, commenced 1839; Bennett-street Institute, 1840; Ancoats Lyceum, for the improvement and recreation of artisans, formed 1838; Parthenon, an institute of popular instruction, formed 1838; St. Mathew's educational institute,1840; West Manchester and Hulme Institution for Operatives, date 1840; Phrenological Society, 1829; Old Subscription Library, 1765, number of volumes 19,000; Subscription Library, 1792, 12,000 voloumes; Library of General Knowledge, 1771, 10,000 voloumes; Law Library, 1820; Foreign Library, 1820. An Observatory was projected 1839. The Geological Society was formed October, 1838, and already possesses a museum; the Zoological Society originated 1837-for gardens see Broughton; the Floral and Horticultural Society was formed 1824; the Botanical and Horticultural Society 1827-for botanical garden see Parish generally; the Agricultural Society was formed 1767. The principal places of public amusement are the Theatre Royal, built 1806-old one opened 1753; the Minor or Queen's Theatre, 1790; Olympic Theatre, 1837; the New Concert Hall, erected 1829-old one opened 1777; the Assembly Room, date 1792; the Union Club House society, formed 1825, edifice built 1835; the Albion Club House, date 1837; Carpenters' Hall, erected 1837-8, cost 4,500; Socialists' Hall, built 1839-40; Diorama, 1825; Choral Society, 1833; Gentleman's Glee Club, 1830.-Horse Races are annually held at Kersall moor, they are frequently attended by 100,000 persons, and commenced 1730. The principal buildings for municipal purposes are the Town Hall, a magnificent structure, founded August 19, 1822, cost upwards of 45,000-the large room is 131 feet long and 38 wide, and is adorned by numerous paintings, emblematical of commerce; there is a Town Hall in Chorlton-on-Medlock; for Salford Town Hall and Sessions House see Salford; Borough Court, formerly Manor Court Room, opened June 18, 1839; and Parochial Offices, opened 1810. The chief commercial edifices are the Exchange-the first Exchange was built 1629, taken down 1792, present exchange built in shares, 92 by 66 feet, cost above 20,000, founded July 21, 1806, opened 1809, enlarged 1839, number of subscribers 2,000; the Corn Exchange, built 1836, cost 3,250; and the Post Office, lately in the Exchange, is now in what was Brown-street market-the gross receipts of this office in 1835 were 64,373. There were in 1838 six joint-stock Banks, and six private Banks. The Chamber of Commerce, for the protection of trade, was formed 1820. There is a Manchester Fire and Life Assurance Company, date March 24, 1824; and numerous other Assurance Offices. The Old and New Quay Companies are carrying concerns. Five newspapers are published, the first issued 1719. The town is lighted by gas from four extensive establishments, the property of the rate-payers, they were commenced 1817, amount of capital invested 194,000, the main pipes extend 82 miles. Water is supplied by the Water Works Company, commenced 1808, from reservoirs at Beswick and Gorton, covering about 70 acres-daily consumption about 1,400,000 gallons. There are seven bridges over the Irwell : the Old Bridge, now called Victoria Bridge, existed apparently in 1368, when a chapel was built upon it, improved 1776-7, rebuilt 1838, of one arch 100 feet span; Blackfriars, built 1761, rebuilt 1819; New Bailey, 1785; Regent, 1808; Railway,1829; Waterloo, or Strangeways, 1817; and Broughton, 1803.-Ducie Bridge, over the Irk, date 1815, is very lofty. There are extensive barracks-see Salford and Hulme. There are, as in all large towns, a vast amount of ignorance, intemperance and crime; the number of vagrants committed to Salford in 1832 was 933. The number of public houses and beer shops in Manchester alone is about 1,000. The total persons tried at the New Bailey in 1800 was 441; 1815, 497; 1835, 1,059; 1837, 1313 : average number of prisoners in the New Bailey 700. The total annual value of the lands and buildings in 1815 was 303,732; 1829, 371,749; 1840, 597,921. The manufacturing population are characterized by "great powers of invention, constant habits of searching for improvement, love of all that is practically scientific," and the exercise of well directed generosity. The geology of Manchester is not uninteresting, the stone is chiefly red rock formed of siliceous grains, coal is obtained in the easterly part  of the township, and there is magnesian limestone; fossil fishes have been discovered in the St. George's road mine, and fossil shells in Collyhurst red marle. Manchester is principally supplied with coal from the adjacent districts.-The amount of coal brought into Manchester in 1836 was estimated at 913,991 tons. The general breadth of the Irwell is 40 yards, the Irk and Medlock are about a fourth or fifth of its size. Piccadilly is 156 feet above the level of the sea.

(5) A Statistical Sketch of the County Palatine of Lancaster 1841 by Edwin Butterworth.