Salford, a township, manor, market town and parliamentary borough, the foemer wholly, the latter partly in the parish of Manchester. The parliamentary borough contains Salford, and Broughton, in Manchester parish; and Pendleton, and a portion of Pendlebury, in Eccles parish. Salford township extends over 1,350 acres, and is separated from Manchester by the river Irwell; it is the principal suburb of that town, and was a royal manor and wapentake in the Saxon era, hence a manor court was then held, and the place gave name to the hundred.-The manor is vested in the crown, as parcel of the duchy of Lancaster. Courts leet for the hundred are held at Easter, and Michaelmas; and a wapentake court for the hundred every three weeks, for small debts. Quarter and alternate sessions, and daily petit sessions, are held at the New Bailey. Ordsall hall was existing 1341 : Ackers hall is no longer existing. There are 4 episcopal places of worship : Trinity, built 1635, by H. Booth, Esq., rebuilt 1752; St. Stephen's, built 1793, annual value £145; St. Philip's, erected 1824, cost £14,000, annual value £110; and Christ's Church, built 1830-1. The dissenters chapels are 11 : Wesleyan Methodists, Irwell-street, Gravel-lane; Independents, Windsor-bridge, Chapel-street, Liverpool-street; Wesleyan Association, Bury-street; Primitive Methodists, Deal-street; Welsh Methodists, Uxbridge-street; Bible Christians, King-street; Independent Methodists, Shaw-street; and Swedenborgian, Bolton-street. Salford is partly governed by a boroughreeve and two constables, appointed at the hundred courts leet; mention occurs of the boroughreeve in a charter granted to the burgesses in 1231, by Ranulph de Blundeville, Earl of Chester, then lord of the manor.-These officers,conjointly with certain inhabitants, were empowered by an act passed 1792, to govern and regulate the town; this act, as amended 1830, authorizes the boroughreeve and constables, and 120 persons elected by the rate-payers in eight police districts, to govern and improve : the income in 1838-9 was £6,305, expenditure £5,361. The highway surveyors are appointed by the police commissioners. Salford was created a parliamentary borough by the Reform Bill, passed June 7, 1832, the limits are as previously alluded to, one member returned, returning officer the boroughreeve, number of voters 1838, 2,227. The charter of 1231 sanctioned the holding of a market, but it was not till 1824 that a royal grant of a market was obtained, the principal market day is Saturday, for cattle Wednesday, at Cross-lane, Pendleton.-The market house was opened 1827. Two ancient fairs are held for 21 days each, Whit-Monday, and November 17. In 1820 the township contained 4 cotton mills; 1823, 5; 1826, 10; 1829, 10; 1832, 7; 1836,12 : the number of hands in these mills in 1836 was 2,443. The total horses power engaged in cotton spinning and weaving in the borough in 1838 was 704, bleaching, dying, &c. 521, machine making, &c. 226. In 1836 990 hands were employed in silk manufactories in Salford alone. The canal and railway to Bolton - le - moors commence in Salford, and the railway to Liverpool crosses the district. In 1773 there were here 866 inhabited houses; 1788, 1,260; 1801, 2,204; 1811, 3,424; 1821, 4,818; 1831, 7,206. The principal streets have been much improved recently, but most of the streets are narrow and dirty. In 1773 the population was 4,765; 1801, 13,611; 1811, 19,114; 1821, 25,772; 1831, 40,786; present population about 53,000. Of 40,966 persons in Salford, visited in 1835-6, 31,693 inhabited houses, 3,132 rooms, 2,831 boarded, and 3,310 lived in cellars. In 1825 the number of sunday schools was 11; in 1835, 24; scholars 1835, 7,823 : of these schools 6 were episcopal, and 16 dissenters : at the latter period the dame schools were 56, common 34, superior private and boarding 19, scholars 3,483; infant 2, charity and subscription 7, scholars 1,158; evening 22, scholars 423; total schools 164, scholars 10,396. The National school, built 1812, is partially endowed, scholars in 1836, 260 boys, and 160 girls: the New Jerusalem, boys and girls, Christ's Church, and British and Foreign schools, are subscription schools; the poor house and barrack schools are free. The principal Charities are those of Humphry Booth, senr., 14 acres of land, 1630, to the poor, income 1838, £987; Humphry Booth, land, &c. 1672, to chapel and poor, income 1838, £629,-there were in 1838 227 weekly recipients of the proceeds, thus easing the parochial rates largely. The poor house is spacious, built 1792 : the total receipts for poor received in 1839-40 were £10,382, total expenditure £9,649. The public institutions are the Salford and Pendleton Royal Dispensary, opened 1827, number of patients 1838,4,290; the Lying-in Hospital, opened 1790; the Salford Mechanics' Royal Institution, formed 1838, members about 500; and Salford Lyceum, formed 1839. The Town Hall and Market is a convenient edifice, erected 1825-6, cost 9,600. The Gas Works, erected 1820, were superseded 1835 by new works, capital £20,000, main pipes extended 8½ miles, half of the profits are to be appropriated to public improvements, as the works belong to the rate-payers. The New Bailey prison, for the hundred of Salford, was founded 1787, and opened 1790, enlarged 1816' encloses an area of above 5 acres, average number of prisoners 700. The Infantry Barracks, formed prior to 1825, will accommodate 700 men. The annual value of property in 1815 was £47,910; 1829, £100,068.
(5) A Statistical Sketch of the County Palatine of Lancaster 1841 by Edwin Butterworth.